Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Solar Nebular Hypothesis :: essays research papers

Solar Nebular Hypothesis   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The idea behind the Solar Nebular Hypothesis is that the solar system was condensed from an enormous cloud of hydrogen, helium, and a few other elements and rocks. Around five billion years this cloud of materials began to spin and contract together into a disk shape under their own gravitational forces. The particles started combined together, protoplanets, to eventually form planets. A great mass of the material eventually began to form together, protosun, and make up the sun.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I agree with the Solar Nebular Hypothesis. I am a person that likes to base my opinions scientifically. Evidence wise this theory makes more sense than any other does. I stand the same way on how the earth was created as I do with the development with humans. I believe in evolution because the evidence is there it is not just some everyday whacko’s theory. There is logic and facts to back it up. The Solar Nebular Hypothesis can be backed up as true by looking at the order of the planets and what elements they contain and their gravitational fields. I am not an expert but this is what I believe in. I disagree with the big bang theory because it just doesn’t make sense how when a huge massive ball can explode and create a solar system that has planets that rotate around a sun in the middle. If there were an explosion you would think that particles would be going every which way. With the Solar Nebular Hypothesis it makes sense that

Monday, January 13, 2020

Vacant Chapter 17 Family

The last five years have been unbelievable in more ways than one. It's been a long, difficult road, no doubt about it. There's fighting†¦and making up, money problems and tears, but we always make it through, and we make it through together. We are, however, about to experience three of the biggest changes in our lives thus far. Margie is retiring and a new manager will take her place. I'm pretty sure I know a candidate who is a shoe-in. Ethan has taken his duties as assistant manager very seriously. Margie confided to me that it would be a proud moment to see Ethan take her place. The salary increase was nothing to joke about either, and this promotion was enabling us to finally buy our own home. It wouldn't be fancy or lavish, but it would be ours. Margie has been an enormous support system for both Ethan and me. She's stepped in as the mother figure we both needed as we transitioned to new parts of our lives. One could say that I should have been bitter about a â€Å"stand-in† mother, but I never saw it that way. She has been my savior more than once, but when I first met Margie, I wasn't sure what to think. â€Å"Can I help you?† â€Å"Well, I was looking for Ethan.† The woman was small, but spoke with assurance. â€Å"Does he still live here?† I hadn't known what to tell her. It flashed through my mind when I answered the door that perhaps this was the landlord and someone had reported us. Ethan wasn't supposed to have anyone living with him. I shouldn't have cared if he got in trouble after the way he up and left me after I spilled my guts to him, but I just couldn't be angry with him – no matter how hard I tried. â€Å"I'm Margie, Ethan's boss.† I stalled in answering her, debating whether I should invite her in. â€Å"Dear†¦?† â€Å"Oh, sorry – I'm uh†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I didn't know whether to give my real name. My gut told me that this woman was harmless. â€Å"It's Emily.† My mother taught me to never give more information than necessary. â€Å"Well, Emily, it's a pleasure to meet you.† That day, Margie invited herself into the duplex and into my life. She was there to comfort me as I cried my eyes out and told her the events leading up to Ethan leaving. She hugged me and gave soothing words of encouragement; above all else, she assured me Ethan would return and that I just had to be patient. She spoke about Ethan that afternoon as if he were her own son. There was never a disapproving word, only compliments and work anecdotes from the years she'd known him. She was also there to support me through school. She insisted, along with Ethan, that I take full advantage of the scholarship I was given. She also wanted me to develop my interests and not just major in something so I could get a job. She told me to pursue what I loved; something I was passionate about. â€Å"I think I know what I want to major in,† I told Margie, the excitement of my revelation radiating in my tone. â€Å"That's great, sweetie. Tell me.† â€Å"This lady came in today with a little boy with autism, and it was so fascinating to watch her interact with him. I think I want to learn more about children and disabilities.† I was nervous about Margie's answer. Maybe she thought I was a little too ambitious or crazy even in regards to my career path. â€Å"What do you think?† â€Å"I think we are lucky to have you, one of God's angels here on earth. You warm an old woman's heart, Emily. I can't think of a better career choice.† I finished school three years later with a degree in Early Childhood Special Education. Margie was there with Ethan on graduation day, and I think she was the loudest cheerleader in the auditorium. â€Å"So, you really want to do this?† I used to be the one that was so unsure of everything and looked to Ethan to be the decision maker. Now, it seems, the tables have turned. He's always looking to me for reassurance. â€Å"I do. I know there will be a lot of work to be done on it, but I have the summer off. There is a lot I can do during that time.† I'd yet to tell him he'd be doing all the painting, but I think – all things considered – he'll be just fine with the tradeoff. â€Å"This house is in a better neighborhood and is a bit bigger. There is room for us to have a home office and a couple spare bedrooms.† The realtor was anxious to make a deal. The house had been on the market for several months due to the â€Å"as is† sale. She's hovering, not wanting this potential sale to slip away. â€Å"Do you have any questions, Mr. and Mrs. Parker?† Despite hearing Mrs. Parker every day, hearing it still brings a smile to my face. I grabbed Ethan's hand and led him back down the hallway. â€Å"I think we'll take another look around and meet you back out front.† I answer, desperate to get a few moments alone with my husband and away from the hovering realtor. â€Å"Will you marry me?† Those were the first words out of Ethan's mouth. Not, â€Å"Good morning, Emily. How did you sleep?† Stunned didn't even begin to capture what I was feeling. My brain wasn't fully awake, and I hadn't registered the small diamond on my left hand. Ethan had placed it there in my sleep and had yet to bring it to my attention. The two years before Ethan's proposal had been perfect. Our new apartment was a dream come true, and we'd even made friends with our neighbors Garth and Kim. The guys loved to barbecue, and Kim loved to talk about kids and literature, two of my favorite things. â€Å"Emily? Come on! You're killing me here!† His desperation made me giggle a bit, as if I'd ever tell him no. â€Å"Yes!† â€Å"Thank God! I was so nervous.† Three weeks later found us at Powell Gardens in the Marjorie Powell Allen Chapel. We had the ceremony on Friday evening, then a picnic in the nearby fountain courtyard. It was small, just Margie and her husband, Garth and Kim, and me and Ethan. We didn't have a honeymoon, but that was okay. Someday, we'd get there. â€Å"So what are you thinking we can do with this room?† Easy, Emily, don't rush it. Make it perfect, I tell myself. â€Å"I'm sure you'll want a place to set up shop at home to work on your lesson plans and stuff.† Ethan walks into the room and steps to the large bow window. â€Å"This window will give you a lot of natural light to work by,† he finishes. â€Å"Yeah, but I think the smaller room down the hall will be good for an office space.† Deep breath, this is it. â€Å"I think this room would be perfect as a nursery since it's right next to the master and has its own quarter bath.† Wait for it†¦. It takes longer than I think it should for it to sink in. I've counted to thirty before he turns around and stares at me blankly. I move my hand down to rest on my still flat stomach. His eyes widen and his mouth falls open. After a long pause, I give him a nod of confirmation and my eyes flutter closed for a couple seconds. â€Å"You're†¦?† I simply nod again. â€Å"Seriously?† â€Å"Seriously.† I don't even think my reply is completely out of my mouth before he's crossed the room and picks me up. He swings me around, hugging me tight. He's mumbling, â€Å"Oh my God, oh my God!† over and over into my breasts. I half expect him to sneak a motorboat in there while he's at it. I just grip his head tighter, relishing the moment. He finally sets me down and kisses me. This is the happiest I've ever seen this man†¦the man I love and worship and would do anything for. â€Å"Thank you, Emily. Thank you for giving me everything I've always wanted, a family.†

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The And Candide Essays Practical Reason Triumphs Logic

1451518 Practical Reason triumphs Logic Throughout history Literature has always played a unique part in shaping society and symbolizing the beliefs of its people. King Louis XIV served after a time in which there was great conflict amongst Catholics and Huguenots. This conflict brought many uncharacteristic thoughts in to society. This religious conflict would lead to a new view of the world in the eyes of those who believed in the enlightenment. Moliere and Voltaire were both influential writers who strongly represented the enlightenment beliefs in their works Tartuffe and Candide. The enlightenment brought up a rather youthful philosophy in the early seventeenth century. This philosophy focused on reason and good sense more so than common knowledge. The upper class believed they were the only group that could obtain knowledge; the enlightenment questioned this belief. This new idea helped progress the belief and hope that the middle class could become scholars themselves. In the works Tar tuffe and Candide, both authors reveal an unseasoned satirical writing technique in an attempt to attack the societies and in particular the religious communities logical approach. Moliere was an enlightenment author who is most prominently known for his satiric creativity in Tartuffe. He was very precise and clever with his usage of sarcasm to highlight the religious hypocrisy-taking place amongst society and not religion as a whole. A powerful company known as the Holy Sacrament, an

Saturday, December 28, 2019

An Effective Representation Of Females During Leadership...

With Hillary Clinton running for president, there has been much debate recently about if a woman can adequately rule the nation due to her gender. Although this is a popular point of discussion surrounding Hillary Clinton, it is an opinion that has shaped the leadership of practically every establishment in not only the United States, but also the world. With more women entering the workforce in the last several decades, there is starting to be an appropriate representation of females in leadership positions (Monroe, 2015). However, it is important to take a closer look at which roles they are holding and also their effectiveness in leadership positions compared to their male counterparts. Many studies show that not only are women being almost excluded from high ranking leadership positions, but also that there is no gender-based reason why they should be based on effectiveness. One study (Monroe, 2015) focused on comparing leadership positions held by department of medicine (DOM) faculty at an academic medical university. The study compared the higher ranking leadership positions to the entirety of leadership positions through a gender lense. This study was conducted through a cross-sectional survey which examined 16 different aspects of leadership positions, such as type of position, method used to fill the position, and financial compensation, at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 2012. The study found that women held 35% of the 258 leadership positions whichShow MoreRelatedDo Men Make Better Managers Than Women?1413 Words   |  6 Pagesconclusion and thus directly answer the question. Therefore this essay aims to demonstrate both the strengths and weaknesses of both men and women within managerial roles, and show how they are of equal capabilities to perform within a managerial position. This essay will explore the qualities of both men and women that enable both genders to be good managers. Furthermore there will be a focus on the history of both men and women in management, which will show how women have generally being regardedRead MoreTaking a Look at Women and Leadership1255 Words   |  5 PagesI am requesting 4 advanced level credits for my knowledge, experience and development relating to Women in Leadership. In support of my request, I will address four significant areas relating to women in leadership roles relative to my own personal challenges: The history of women in both secular and non-secular employment and the challenges they face; how women lead in comparison to men; and the changing attitudes towards women taking lead roles in business. 1) THE HISTORY OF WOMEN IN BOTH SECULARRead MoreMinority Representation Of Minority Minorities1558 Words   |  7 PagesThe insufficiency in the representation of minorities in higher education administration and tenured faculty remained consistently problematic in spite of the existing and growing awareness within the higher education community (Nye Maxey, 1994). According to McKenney and Cejda (2000), minority representation in the American higher education system has generally been a major issue for the academic community as a whole. Racial and ethnic diversity has become increasingly more challenging throughoutRead MoreBusiness Environment : Business Environments900 Words   |  4 Pagesdiversity to acquire the most optimal candidates for positions and, as a result of that, have fostered diversity between board representatives, higher paid corporate executives, using diverse language and having strong family friendly benefits. Promoting and fostering diversity with an organization’s leadership team demonstrates that diversity is top priority to employees who subsequently fall below those leaders on a, organizational chart. Leadership teams that can offer varying perspectives, or thoseRead MoreDiversity1392 Words   |  6 Pagesthrive at entry-level positions, moving up the ladder is challenging. In fact, retaining women and minorities in the workplace has become increasingly harder for large companies, especially healthcare organizations. Despite the clear value of having a diverse workforce, like increased innovation, improved financial stats, and enhanced organizational performance, reputation, healthcare organizations are still struggling to attract and retain minorities and women in leadership roles. A multiculturalRead MoreElizabeth : The Forgotten Years Essay1577 Words   |  7 PagesOften considered by historians as one of England’s greatest monarchs, Elizabeth Tudor’s life and prosperous reign have inspired numerous historical works including books, biographies, and visual media representations. Elizabeth: The Forgotten Years, written by John Guy, is an exq uisitely detailed biography of the Tudor queen, which encapsulates her not only as an authoritative figure but also as an independent woman. Guy focuses on the trialling years of Elizabeth’s rise to prominence, as she facesRead MoreThe Effects Of Media And Stereotypes On Women1554 Words   |  7 Pagesthe many words associated with leadership. Regardless of gender, these words apply to all leaders. It is no longer a question of what women leaders are, but rather why there are not women leaders. Today’s society focuses on fulfilling leadership positions with males, not because females do not have the same skills and knowledge as men, but because people associate men with leaders. There are various daily obstacles that women face in the attempt towards leadership roles including prejudice beliefsRead MoreWomen Of The New Millennium And Woman Has Made Great Strides Toward The Top931 Words   |  4 Pagesbecome much more than that. From breaking into the workforce to ta king over male dominated jobs, we as woman are rising to the top in light speed. Since the beginning of time, there has been a clear-cut distinction between the two sexes, male and female. It wasn’t until the mid-40s that this all started to change for the better. World War II, which closely followed the Depression, marked a turning point in the distribution of economic roles between women and men, although it did not necessarilyRead MoreWalmart s Reputation For Unfair Labor Practices1922 Words   |  8 Pagesa lack of proof that Walmart operated under a â€Å"general policy of discrimination†, there is much evidence that shows that gender discrimination is still a problem rooted in the culture of Walmart, despite gender-neutral policies (Biskupic, 2011). During the 1950’s and 60’s in northwest Arkansas, a surplus of unskilled labor existed due to â€Å"increasing mechanization of agricultural work.† Leveraging this big demand for employment, Sam Walton, the founder of Walmart, provided these agricultural menRead MoreEssay on Gender Discrimination at Walmart2005 Words   |  9 Pagesof proof that Walmart operated under a â€Å"general policy of discrimination†, overwhelming evidence demonstrates that gender discrimination is a persistent problem rooted in the culture of Walmart, despite gender-neutral policies (Biskupic, 2011). During the 1950’s and 60’s in northwest Arkansas, a surplus of unskilled labor existed due to â€Å"increasing mechanization of agricultural work†. Leveraging this pent up demand for employment, Sam Walton, the founder of Walmart, provided these agricultural

Friday, December 20, 2019

Punishment, Deterrence, And Rehabilitation Essay - 1140 Words

In the United States there are four main goals when it comes to punishment which are retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation (DeJong, 2016, p. 288). The main goals for these punishments are to maintain order over society and to prevent recidivism (DeJong, 2016, p. 288). This ties into the Ecology perspective. By maintaining order over society and preventing recidivism, it ties into all of the issues regarding the Ecology perspective which requires for each issue to address the individual, family, community and society. Maintaining order over society and preventing recidivism strives toward making a safer environment for the individual, family, community and society. There is no universal agreement for making the severity of punishment just or fair (DeJong, 2016, p. 288). When it comes to retribution the person who is getting punished deserves the punishment (DeJong, 2016, p. 289). Retribution refers to when an individual commits a certain crime then that pe rson must receive a punishment proportionate to that crime or suffering that they may have caused towards the victim (DeJong, 2016, p. 289). Regarding deterrence there are two types, general deterrence and specific deterrence (DeJong, 2016, p. 289). General deterrence focuses on the society in general and wants to scare everyone away from committing crimes (DeJong, 2016, p. 289). Specific deterrence focuses on criminals that have already been convicted and wants to prevent them fromShow MoreRelatedDeterrence, Incapacitation, And Rehabilitation : Explain How The Severity Of Punishment Can Potentially Deter Criminal Behavior1164 Words   |  5 PagesChapter 14 Deterrence, Incapacitation, Retribution, and Rehabilitation: Explain how the severity of punishment, the certainty of punishment, and the promptness of punishment can potentially deter criminal behavior. Is one more important than the other? Why or why not? Severe punishments, such as long stints in prison and the death penalty, are designed to pose as threats or warnings to those who consider committing a crime. It also seems that, theoretically, more severe punishments, such as longerRead MoreThe Integral Role Sentencing Plays in the Criminal Justice Process904 Words   |  4 Pagesthis holds that the severity of the punishment hold to the severity of the crime. This philosophy is not the same as revenge because retribution is more concerned with the rules of society as a whole, rather than the individualism revenge has had on the victim or victims the offender. Most dictionaries give the meaning of retribution as â€Å"repayment†. Public speakers and media hold forth that criminals â€Å"repay their debt to society†. Deterrence- Deterrence is a philosophy that is concerned withRead MoreTwo Types of Criminal Deterrence Essay869 Words   |  4 PagesThere are two different types if deterrence, the first is classified as specific deterrence. The goal of this category of deterrence is to lessen the probability of having a repeat offender. The three strikes law is an example of one of the methods that is used to assist this category of deterrence. The other category of deterrence is general deterrence. This category focuses more on future offenders. General deterrence attempts to positively influence would be offenders and stop the crimes beforeRead MorePunishment Is The Punishment An Individual948 Words   |  4 PagesRetribution can be described with these two words: Deserved Punishment. Retribution is the punishment an individual receives contingent upon the severity of their wrong doings. They must â€Å"pay their debts†. The authors of the text â€Å"Criminal Justice in America† mentions that if the government fails to sentence the individual to an appropriate amount of punishment, society will take the situation into their own hands (Cole, Smith and DeJong 277). If a murderer receives 5 years in prison, the familyRead MoreTheories Of Punishment994 Words   |  4 PagesConley Final Paper 18 December 2017 Punishment is defined as â€Å"the infliction or imposition of a penalty as retribution for an offense† (â€Å"Punishment†). Some prominent theories of punishment include retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and the moral education theory. Although retribution, deterrence, and rehabilitation are all crucial components of punishment justification, independently the theories have weaknesses that avert the moral rationalization of punishment. I believe that Jean Hampton’s moralRead MorePunishment and Sentencing Paper1278 Words   |  6 PagesPunishment and Sentencing Paper CJA/224 Garrett LeGrange September 17, 2010 There are many different philosophies that are in use in the court systems when determining what sort of punishment will be imposed on someone who is found guilty of committing a crime. These philosophies are in use in both the adult courts and juvenile courts. The juvenile court system is similar to the adult courts, but there are many differences between the two. Both court systems try and keep crime from happeningRead MorePunishment vs Rehabilitation1661 Words   |  7 PagesPunishment vs. Rehabilitation Helen Olko October 1, 2012 Abstract The expectations that our society has for the criminal justice system  is to punish and rehabilitate individuals who commit crime. Punishment and rehabilitation are also two of the four acknowledged objectives of the criminal justice system, with deterrence and incapacitation being the others. In the United States, punishment has always been the primary goal to achieve when dealingRead MoreSection 3a Of The Crimes ( Sentencing Procedure ) Act 19991572 Words   |  7 Pageslight of the broader philosophies of punishment in order to explain the tensions that are inherent in the business of punishing. Your essay should present an informed argument on which purposes and/or alternative understandings of justice should take precedence over others and why. The purposes of punishment in NSW have been a topic of great debate amongst contemporary society. At the heart of these discussions is two core theories for justifying punishment: the utilitarian theory, which situatesRead MoreThe Debate Over Rehabilitation And Retribution906 Words   |  4 Pages trial, sentencing, and punishment. There are four punishments: Deterrence, Incapacitation, Rehabilitation, and Retribution. It is in the last two of these many stages that the debate over rehabilitation and retribution is of some significance. The purpose of the Criminal Justice System is to produce justice for all, by sentencing and punishing the accountable and helping them to stop whatever crime they have committed, all while protecting the innocent. Deterrence is an idea that criminalRead MorePunishment Research Paper1317 Words   |  6 PagesPunishment Research Paper Megan Marie Kayser University of Phoenix June 12, 2011 Patrice Jackson SOC/120 Punishment Research Paper There have been four types of justification for punishment throughout the years of society. From older punishments such as retribution to more modern punishments like societal protection, all have been put in place to protect society and to punish individuals for their deviant acts. To find out which type of justification for punishment is most effective, one

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Rape Of Nanking Essay Example For Students

Rape Of Nanking Essay Chapter OneThe main point in chapter one was to give us a history of the Japanese people, and to rationalize why the Japanese army went to such extremes in Nanking. She uses examples of training rituals used by the Japanese army like extreme teaching procedures and terrible school conditions in Japan. I dont think she was trying to make an excuse for the Japanese army but she wanted to site a possible reason for the abuse. She talks about Japanese history and gives us lots of background on the Japanese people before the horrifying occurrence in Nanking. The audience she has tried to communicate to is the intellectual western society who has possibly not heard or knows little about the Nanking massacre. The purpose of the essays is to educate and make aware of the atrocities here in this area of China. To tell, it seemed to me, is an important part of educating people to what the human species is capable of doing in extreme circumstances. Her tone seems to be one of sympathy to what the Japanese people had to go through before the war between China and Japan. This chapter has done a good job on giving the reader history and background of the country and the people in Japan. Chapter TwoIris Chang in this chapter details issues that were critical to the rape of Nanking. The Race to Nanking detailed the Japanese strategy to take Nanking from the Chinese. Killing the prisoners of war detailed the orders to kill all the prisoners because of food concerns and rebellion. The Murder of Civilians detailed why the civilians were killed because of a lack of protection from the soldiers of the Chinese army. The Japanese Journalists told us that the Japanese journalists were horrified about what was going on in Nanking. The Rape of Nanking told of the plight of the women in the Chinese capital. This section told of rapes and atrocities inflicted on the Chinese women, no matter how young or old they could not escape these atrocities. The arrival of Matsui Iwane was the section where the leader of the Japanese army came to inspect Nanking and to make sure the soldiers were doing well. The rapes and atrocities subsided, when he found what was going on he was angry and he even criticized the emperors son-in-law, which in Japanese culture was unheard of. She wrote the chapter this way because it is a chronological order of the way things happened in Nanking. It makes sense because it separates the different events that happened in a certain length of time. Chapter ThreeThe Fall of Nanking is a chronological narrative of the defeat of the Chinese army in Nanking. It details the four-day ordeal and makes us realize what it was like to live there in the time of the fall. The first thing we ask is why the Chinese army fell from power so easily, we realize that when the leaders left the people lost all hope for Nanking. Rape and torture seemed easy to the Japanese because they could be victimized so easily. Chapter FourSix Weeks of Horror as a descriptive and horrifying chapter which takes us to be the witnesses in the, rape, torture, killing contests, and death toll. The description of rape in this chapter is very detailed, but it serves a purpose to take us to be a witness for people who have no witnesses. Most people have a hard time reading this chapter but Ive found it very disturbing how people could do that to other people. She excelled in this chapter to make witnesses of us all. Albinism EssayIris Chang in this book, as in any good book, will always tell of the punishment of the bad people to illustrate a kind of vindication of the victims. In the way the punishment was handed out many of the people responsible never were convicted. She wrote this chapter to illustrate her findings and maybe the world would make some of these people responsible. Chapter NineMost of the survivors of Nanking never really recovered from the ordeal that they encountered. Survivors of rape and torture still live in poverty and any help from the Chinese government or Japanese compensation would greatly help these people. The leaders of the safety zone where expelled from the country and they lived within memories they could not forget. Rabe went through legal battles with the English government and his company Siemans. Eventually he won his battles yet he lived in poverty until his death. In China he is considered a hero but in Germany he is just a dying man. When news of his troubles in Germany the Chinese people donated two thousand dollars American so that he could eat. The government even offered him a place to live in China with a full pension. His writings on the rape of Nanking have extreme historical importance and are still read today. The only surgeon in Nanking died of exhaustion a few years after the atrocities in Nanking. And Minnie Vautrin died in an emotional breakdown, with attempted suicides that eventually succeeded. Writing this chapter serves the purpose of showing that even outsiders suffer great amounts of emotional abuse during the occupation. Chapter TenIn the last chapter Iris Chang tells us about ignorance in the events of Nanking. Western civilization knows about the atom bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki but they dont know anything about the rape of Nanking. This chapter she calls The Forgotten Holocaust: A Second Rape because people are being victimized again because of propaganda, cover up, and censorship. In textbooks the whole story isnt told about World War II because the rape of Nanking is not covered. The ministry of Japan interfered with attempts to document the Nanking massacre for school children. In the end, the publicity caused the dismissal of Japans education minister, and the massacre in Nanking was something the Japanese government could not ignore. Academics in Japan say that not enough time has gone by to warrant Nanking to be a historical event. Censorship still runs rampant in Japanese culture because any reference to the rape of Nanking is censored in movies and books. Even if an author tries to write about the topic intimidation from the Japanese government is inevitable. She tells us that she had to endure censorship and intimidation even writing this book. But the tone she takes in writing this book is very informative and takes us into the realm of World War Two China. The research done in this book is unparalleled and the writing style she takes transports us into a world I hope we never have to face. Her audience, who has an interest in Nanking, will be greatly educated and the time taken to read this book is well worth it. Bibliographythe raping of nankingBiographies

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Healthcare System in Australia and UK Samples †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Healthcare System in Australia and UK. Answer: Introduction Health Care system in Australia plays an important role in providing health care services to the individuals residing in the Country. It includes access to hospitals and medical facilities and treatment for the cure of various diseases. The health Care System in Australia is a complex method and has many responsibilities because the States depend on financial matters from Commonwealth in order to support their health care systems. There are various programmes in the State and a number of healthcare initiatives are organized in the country. There are also non government organizations such as The Australian Red Cross Blood Service that collects donations of blood and delivers them to various providers of Australian healthcare. The National Health and Medical Research Council helps in funding research in health and medical domains. Private organizations also play an important role in providing healthcare services such as Medical Resonance Imaging (MRI).The Australian healthcare system p lays an important role in delivering various healthcare services such as emergency services, primary healthcare services, treatment plan and surgical procedures, and rehabilitation facilities. Healthcare facilities in the UK is provided by the National Health Service and it provides healthcare facilities free of cost to all the residents who are living permanently(Hepburn, Cohen, Bhawra, Weiser, Hayeems, 2015).It involves general practitioners to provide primary health services to patients. The hospitals also provide wide range of services including special care to patients suffering from mental illness, emergency care by ambulances to individuals who met with accidents that is free of cost at times. The country also provides private health care services for residents who wish to pay and they do not receive NHS funds for the medical treatment and various services. This essay deals with the comparison of Health Systems in two countries that is Australia and the UK on the basis of va rious areas like the Funding System, Governance System, Maternal Mortality Rate, Infant Mortality Rate, Life Expectancy at Birth and Health Status including Low Birth weight, Obesity, Diabetes, Asthma, Hypertension, Cancer and % GDP spent on Health. Funding System in Australia and the UK Funding and insurance of health in Australia includes both funding by the government and private health insurance. Medicare scheme is used for funding by the government to provide free care in public hospitals, prescriptions at low cost and a large no of medical services. Private health insurance in Australia is provided by insurance organizations called as health funds. Medibank is the largest health fund with a market share of 30 %.There are various private insurance health schemes introduced by the government of Australia such as Lifetime Health Cover, Medical Levy Surcharge and Private Health Insurance Rebate. Medicare is a administered by Medicare Australia and it is mainly concerned with the payment of nurses, doctors and the finance of hospitals that are state run. The National Health Service (NHS) provides healthcare services that include health care including dental care, ophthalmology, primary care, and long-term healthcare. It includes trusts that help in the delivery of healthcare services such as commissioning trusts that help in the analysis of the needs of local population and the provider trusts that involve NHS bodies to deliver the health care service. According to a report of 2014, the United Kingdom was awarded for providing best healthcare services in the world on the basis of various categories such as patient- centered care, safe and co-ordinated care and efficiency in providing patient satisfaction. Palliative care provided by the UK to its patients has also awarded as best on the global level. Governance System in Australia and the UK The health ministers in the country that includes the state and territory ministers and the Commonwealth to coordinate the public health system in Australia. The Standing Council on Health has an important role in coordination and includes a group of health ministers. The Council of Australian Governments is an important intergovernmental forum in the country and includes the Standing Council. The main objectives of the Standing Council are providing patient care and satisfaction by providing transparent medical facilities with the help of expert clinicians and nurses. It also helps to fund various hospitals so that they can provide excellent health care services to its patients in the future. It also helps in reducing the gap between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous population residing in Australia. The Standing Council also works to provide primary health care services to the ageing population, health care services in the rural areas, Indigenous and mental health services and comm unity health care(Kelaher, Sabanovic, Brooy, Lock, Brown, 2014). The Advisory Board plays an important role in the development of various healthcare strategies governs the healthcare system in the UK. The Cabinet Office and the Office the Prime Minister also help in monitoring the progress(Bowling, 2014). Maternal Mortality Rate Maternal death is defined as the death of a woman during pregnancy or after 42 days after the pregnancy. Maternal death in present years. The death of the mother in the family leads to various problems among her family members. The occurrence of deaths in maternal population is expressed in terms of maternal mortality ratio. The MMR is defined as the number of death occurred due to some complications and issues during the pregnancy that is called as direct deaths or worsening of disease that has occurred due to pregnancy per 100,000 women that are giving birth. It does not include if the death has occurred after 42days of pregnancy or due to any other unknown causes. According to a report of The World Health Organization 2015, it was recorded that around 19 deaths of women occurred during their pregnancy in Australia and its MMR was 6 in the year 2015(Hollams, Klerk, Sly, 2015). The death of pregnant women belonging to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population was double as compared to the women of normal population as they are incapable to provide proper treatment and healthcare facilities to pregnant women. It was reported in the 2015 that 74 pregnant women died during pregnancy in the UK due to abortion, infection, psychosocial issues and cardiovascular problems and its MMR was 7 in the same year(Johansson, Villamo, Altman, Bonamy, Granath, 2015). It occurs due to various issues like direct death involving complications during pregnancy and indirect death due to cardiac problems and medical health issues that are not related to pregnancy. It has been reported that psychosocial issues is the main cause of deaths in women that occurs due to domestic violence and mistreatment that ultimately leads to suicide. Infant mortality rate Infant mortality rate is defined as the number of death of the infants per 1000 live births. In the year 2015, it was reported that deaths of 991 infants had occurred that included 542 males and 449 females as compared to 1012 infant deaths in the year 2014. This shows that there was a decrease of 2.1 % in the number of deaths of infants in the past 10 years from the year 2005-2016. The infant mortality rate in 2015 was the lowest with 3.2 deaths of infants per 1000 live births and in 2005; the infant mortality rate was 4.9 deaths per 1000 live births(Fraser, Sidebotham, Frederick, Mitchell, 2015). The infant mortality rate in the UK has decreased from 5.6 in the year 2005 to 3.9 in the year 2015 (Wolfe, Macfarlane, Donkin, Viner, 2015).Scotland showed the highest decrease of all the countries in the 10-year period. Infant mortality rate is an important aspect to measure the quality of healthcare services provide to the country and the population growth. Life expectancy at birth Life expectancy at birth is an important measure to study about the health of the population and the mortality rate. It is used to measure the duration a person will be able to live based on present age and death rates specific to sex. In the last century, the life expectancy in Australia has increased in both the sexes. A boy who is born in the years 2013-2015 is expected to live until 80.4 years of age and girls until 84.5 years of age. For the individuals belonging to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Population who are born in between 2010-2012, the life expectancy was estimated to be 10.6 years less as compared to that of non-Indigenous population for males(Phillips, Morrell, Daniels, 2014).Australia is considered to have one of the highest life expectancies in all the countries in the world. Life expectancy at birth in the UK has increased from the previous years. A boy who is born in the years 2013-2015 is expected to live until 79.1 years and a female born is expected to live until 82.8 years if the rate of mortality remains the same(Head, et al., 2013). Health Status : Low Birth weight According to World Health Organization, if the weight of an infant is less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds he or she is considered to be in a low birth rate category. It is monitored by using surveys in households and health system surveillance. It was reported in the year 2013, around 22 million newborn babies that are 16 % of all the infants that were born on a global scale in that year, had low birth weight (Hutchinson, De Luca, Doyle, Roberts, Anderson, 2013). It is a challenging process because weight is not recorded in a large number of infants during the birth. Low birth rate is linked with increased occurrence of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes. Low birth weight in the UK has remained the same as compared to the previous years. In the year, 2013 it was reported that around 6% of babies had low birth weights that is it was less than 2500 grams(Drummond, Sculpher, Claxton, Torrance). Obesity Obesity refers to accumulation of fat in the individuals that make them overweight and leads to various diseases such as diabetes, cancer, mental issues and cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks and strokes. It was reported that 56% of the population were identified as obese in 1995 and it was increased to 63% in the year 2014-15 and the average weight for both male and female was increased by 4.4 kg(Ng, et al., 2014).There are various factors that lead to obesity such as lack of balanced diet and physical exercise. It was reported that the obesity in the population living in UK showed an increase from 32.3%in the year 1995 to 52% in the year 2015(Arora, Hosseini?Araghi, Bishop, Yao, Thomas, 2015). Body Mass Index (BMI) is the most common method to measure the obesity in the body of an individual and it is calculated by dividing the weight of a person in kilograms by the height square in meters. Diabetes Diabetes has become one of the major challenges in the health system of Australia in the 21st century. It has been reported that in every 5 minutes one individual develops the symptoms of diabetes. It was reported in the year 2016, a total of 1.7 million individuals suffer from diabetes in Australia. It is increasing at rapid rate and type 1diabetes is around 10% of all the diabetes and type 2 diabetes is around 85 % of all the diabetes (Renzaho Marks, 2016).It has also been reported that there are around 4,400 amputations due to diabetes in Australia every year. Gestational diabetes is also increasing at a rapid rate in pregnant women. It has been reported in the year 2016, there are around 4.5 million people in the UK who are diagnosed with diabetes. It includes 1 million people those who have not been diagnosed and are suffering from Type 2 diabetes (Niranjan Price, 2016). Asthma Asthma is defined as respiratory illness that leads to difficulty in breathing. According to the reports, around 2.5 million individuals suffered from asthma in the year 2016 in Australia that means that one in nine individuals (Willis Keleher, 2016). In the indigenous populations, the rate of occurrence of asthma is double as compared to that of non-indigenous populations. This disease is more prevalent in people who have low socio economic status. There are around 5.4 million people who suffered from asthma in the year 2016 in the UK including 1.1 million children and 4.3 million adults(Cook, Cole, Asaria, Francis, 2016). The UK has highest number of patients suffering from asthma and the NHS spends approximately 1 billion per year to provide care and treatment for patients suffering from asthma. Hypertension Hypertension is also known as high blood pressure and it can lead to various diseases such as heart failure, stroke or disease in kidney. It was reported that 2.6 million individuals suffered from hypertension in the year 2014- 2015 that is 11.3% of the total Australian population. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in males as compared to females that is, 12 % for males and 10.7 % in females and it also increases with age(Roberts, Algert, Ford, 2015). It was reported in the year 204-2015, that 32 % of the individuals residing in the UK suffered from hypertension as a large number of individuals do not keep a check on their blood pressure (Rapsomaniki, et al., 2015). Around one- third of the population in the UK are not aware of the fact that they are suffering from high blood pressure. It has also been reported that the level of high blood pressure increases in the women as there is a decrease in their income. Cancer Cancer can be defined as the condition in which all the cells in the body multiply in an abnormal manner and become out of control. It was reported that, in the year 2013 there were 124,465 new cases of cancer diagnosis in Australia, which included 68,936 males and 55,529 females.It is also estimated that around 134,174 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in 2017 in Australia(Moore, Antoni, Colquhoun, Healy, Bray, 2013) . It was reported in the year 2013, that around 152,432 deaths had occurred in the UK due to patients suffering from cancer. Half of the patients suffering from cancer died due to breast cancer, lung cancer, bowel or prostate cancer (DeSantis, Ma, Jemal, 2013). Cancer leads to more than one death in four of all the deaths in the UK. Liver cancer is the main cause of increase in the mortality rates in both the males and the females over the past 10 years and stomach cancer is the main cause of decrease in the mortality rates in both the males and the females over the past 10 years. Health System Performance: Percentage GDP spend on Healthcare The percentage of GDP spend in healthcare in Australia was 9.4% of the total GDP in the year 2014 as compared to 7.3% in the year 1995. This shows that the government of Australia has increased the expenditure to provide better healthcare facilities to its individuals to give better care and patient satisfaction. It was reported in the year 2014 that the UK spent 9.1 % of the total GDP in healthcare as compared to 6.7% of the total GDP spent in the year 2014(Fuchs, 2014).Both the countries are efficient in increasing the expenditure to provide excellent health care facilities. Discussion Maternal mortality rate was higher in the UK as compared to that of Australia in the year 2015.This is because of lack of proper treatment facilities to women during the time of pregnancy. It is also reported that psychosocial issues is the main cause of deaths in women that occurs due to domestic violence and mistreatment that ultimately leads to suicide. It was observed that there was an increase of 7% in the percentage of obese population from the year 1995-2015 and an increase of 20 % in the UK for the same year.This is because the population living in the UK do not follow a balanced diet and perform physical exercise leading to obesity. This in turn leads to various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke and heart attack. There are around 1.7 million individuals suffering from diabetes in Australia and around 4.5 million individuals in the UK. This difference is because a large no of people in the UK do not undergo health checkups and they are not aware that they are s uffering from diabetes. There are around 2.5 million people suffering from asthma in Australia and 5.4 billion people in the UK. This is because of blockage of oxygen into the lungs and increase in the production of mucus. Around 11.6 % of population in Australia suffer from hypertension and around 32% in the UK. This difference is due to the reason that a large number of individuals do not get their blood pressure tested unless they visit the doctor. Deaths of cancer patients was also more in UK than Australia due to increase in the number of cancer patients. Conclusion It can be concluded from the comparisons of the health systems of both the countries Australia and the UK that both the countries provide government and private health insurance to all its individuals to avail proper health services and medical treatments. This helps the patients can get proper care and patient satisfaction. The department of Health Ministry governs the healthcare system in both the countries and they play an important role in developing and strategizing various measures and guidelines in order to deliver proper healthcare services in an effective manner. Infant mortality rate decreased in both the countries, the UK and Australia from the year 2005-2015. Life expectancy at birth was also almost the same for birth the countries. Low birth weight had no significant change as compared to previous years in both Australia and the UK. The percentage of GDP spent by the government in providing health care services to its individuals was same for both the countries in the ye ar 2014 to ensure that people get access to proper medical facilities. Bibliography Arora, Hosseini?Araghi, Bishop, Yao, Thomas. (2015). The complexity of obesity in UK adolescents: relationships with quantity and type of technology, sleep duration and quality, academic performance and aspiration.,. 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