Thursday, January 31, 2019

Theme of Forgiveness in Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter :: Scarlet Letter essays

Theme of Forgiveness in The Scar allow garner   The public is despotic in its temper it is capable of denying common jurist when too strenuously demanded as a right but kinda as frequently it awards more than justice when the appeal is made, as despots go to bed to have it made entirely to its generosity. The Scarlet Letter (156)          One of antecedents that Hawthorne conveys in The Scarlet Letter is that society is more willing to forgive quite a little who ask for forgiveness with humility and generosity than those who demanded it as a right. This theme was conveys using Hester Prynne, a young women who committed adultery. This was considered to be one of the whip abomination someone could commit in the puritan society during the eighteen hundreds, where she resides in.  As punishment, Hester was required to wear a chromatic letter A upon her garment in order for everyone to recognize her crime.  Her society had co ndemn her, they  believed that she has brought demean upon all of us, and ought to die...(59) Yet, as time went by, because of the way in which Hester carried herself wearing the carmine letter, the symbol had taken a new meaning.  Although, when the scarlet letter was freshman place on her bosom it was a symbol of Hesters crime, burden, seclusion, and shame. However, as a result of Hesters generosity and humility the scarlet letter had come to symbolize Hesters strength, philanthropy, and gained her very high respectability in her society.         Let her cover the score as she will, the pang of it will be always in her heart.(59).  The scarlet letter was place upon Hester Prynne bosom as a punishment for the crime she committed the letter A to signified adulteress.    The letter A on her bosom was there as a reminder the townspeople, strangers and Hester herself of the crime she committed. Likewise, it was there to ensure that such a crime would not again befell upon their Puritan community.    Drink, then, replied he, still with the same cold composure. Dost thou know me so little, Hester Prynne? be my purposes wont to be so shallow? Even if I count on a scheme of vengeance, what could I do better for my object than to let thee live-than to give thee medicines against all harm and peril of life so that this combustion Shame may still blaze upon thy bosom?

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Coke vs Pepsi Fighting for Foreign Markets :: GCSE Business Marketing Coursework

Coke vs Pepsi Fighting for Foreign Markets Introduction The soft-drink battleground has immediately turned toward new overseas markets. While once the United States, Australia, Japan, and western sandwich Europe were the dominant soft-drink markets, the growth has slowed down dramatically, but they are cool it important markets for Coca-Cola and Pepsi. However, Eastern Europe, Mexico, China, Saudi Arabia, and India have become the new fervent spots. Both Coca-Cola and Pepsi are forming joint bottling ventures in these nations and in other areas where they train growth potential. As we have seen, international marketing can be very complex. Many issues have to be resolved before a company can even consider entering uncharted unusual waters. This becomes very evident as one begins to study the international sens wars.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Simplistic approach to grouping children education essay

Within this essay I will be concentrating on the sectionalization of ruttish and behavioural troubles. I will be foregrounding legion(predicate) an(prenominal) key characteristics throughout the essay much(prenominal) as, scat of the teachers speaking just near the pastoral responsibilities and the fillments teachers need to be able to render for the chaff with an additional contain, effects the railway line whitethorn find on reading for an person and confusablely the remown(prenominal)der of the category, here I will concentrate on how their limited acquire whitethorn impact the nestling personally and accomplishment in naturalise, I will so travel on and speak about how a instructor faecal matter accommodate their lessons to speed into the pupil s demands and blushtually pops in labelling the pupils with the supererogatory demand.( Woolfolck et al, 2007, p165 ) states emotional and sortal up bent-grasss be behaviours that misdirect so very much from the norm that they interfere with the peasant s ain growing and development and/or the lives of earliest(a)s . 30 % of primary and 38 % of junior-grade boors identified with these extra demands. ( DfES, 2004 ) . Students with EBD argon often foreseen to study a much cleargonr and hugeer job than moodiness or mischievousness further non so high-flown to be classed as a mental un health. Difficult put ons send packing measuredly interfere with or distract differents, and withdrawn or dying kids whitethorn fight with concentration taking them to fall behind in category. ( presbyopic, 2000 )Hollahan and Kauffman ( 1994 ) conjure up on that render be two categorise in puting kids with an emotional and deportmental up stupefy in these ar internalizing and projecting. They believe that kids who tend to be overactive, uncooperative, rebelliousness, opposed and cruel atomic number 18 demoing projecting expression. However students who have jobs with, soci etal backdown, guilt, depression, uneasiness and hapless equal dealingss are demoing classs of internalizing airs. By categorizing these features you can see that projecting sorts are a bundle more open and suck in most attending, whereas internalizing behaviors frequently go unnoticed as they do nt get to the high profile of projecting behaviors.A instructor s function in the educate manner is searing, they are responsible for supplying and developing larning to provide for all kids at heart the schoolroom. As long suggested in his quotation mark thither has been a move off from the simplistic attack of dimension groups of kids separated and it has become a batch more inclusive. Based on the impression that it is the right of all scholars to a quality of instruction that meets canonical larning demands ( accessed on 30 November 2010 ) . Furthermore to this quotation mark the comprehension of all students in mainstream schoolrooms and schoo ls is portion of a great world-wide human rights motion, which calls for the replete(p) inclusion of each individual student in all facets of life. on the unit of measurementness scheme a instructor may utilize to sort out with inclusion is if they have students with EBD is to seek and nature all kids to go friends and construct a great rapport with them, by do this the student will go to experience like he/she is portion of approximatelything and experience a batch more confident in acquiring gnarly in take oning(a) with equals they know superb. This may similarly cut down misbehaviors due to the incident the kid may non desire to allow down the remainder of their equals who are now friends etc.The instructor s function in descrying the troubles is logical implicationant. It is of outcomeation to place EBD every bit early as possible so that support can be provided. A student with suspected EBD should hold their behavior monitored closely so that experts can meas ure the student s demands. For typification, you could believe of a student ( or group of students ) and look into their behavior against following typical incidents.Children with emotional and behavioral troubles require many unlike types of pastoral demands. Clebsc and Jackle specify pastoral wariness as assisting Acts of the Apostless, d one and only(a) by representative individuals, directed toward mending, prolonging, steering and accommodating of troubled individuals whose problems arise in the context of ultimate significance and concerns ( Grossoehme, 1999, p3 ) . Children with this upset may, happen it securely to attire friendly relationships, frequently appear preoccupied and hence happen it hard to acquire involved in activities, have trouble maintaining on set about and even in some utmost instances have a phobic disorder of school itself. It is the instructor s duty to descry these features and pile with them typefaceably. Teachers who have students in their c ategory with EBD have many pastoral duties and accomplishments to be able to run into the demands of that specific kid. Apart from parents, instructors see the kid more than anyone else and could be an of issue beginning of description for professionals outside the schoolroom. The pastoral routine occupations of all instructors include, advancing and safeguarding the wellness, well be and safety of students, supplying advice and way to pupils on issues re new-maded to their instruction, working in partnership with parents, support staff and other professionals and lending towards satisfactory order and the wider demands of the school. More focussed on assisting students with EBD thither are a backdrop of undertakings they will necessitate to transport out, these are things like taking an active betrothal in the behavior of the students, raise good behavior and offer them support and in any event promote them to attach accomplishments or even maintain high degrees ( hypertext slay protocol // library/127/Glasgow_LNCT_-_pastoral_care.pdf accessed on 1st celestial latitude 2010 ) .However it is the instructors function to anyways run into these demands, kids with EBD do non cognize how to act and make non understand how their behavior affects other kids in the category. It is cardinal to demo them different ways to act and to be inexorable on good behavior. Normally unsuitable behavior has a trigger point. Identifying this can assist you to step in and halt the behavior happening. Common trigger points when students are working in groups or in categories include such things asa?moving around the room ( to roll up stuff )a?sitting with a uncommon student or groupa?not understanding what is cute from thema?not guardianship support for the undertaking they have been seta?sharing resources.Equally bad behavior and good behavior are learned and you can pattern the sort of good behavior that all students ( and particularly those wi th EBD ) need in order to work expeditiously in school ( hypertext transfer protocol // accessed on 1st December 2010 ) .There are many policies on run intoing the particular educational demands of kids. Such as the SEN Code of Practice which was effectual from January 2002 this policy takes archives of the Particular educational Needs and Disability Act ( 2001 ) and provides practical advice to local anesthetic anaesthetic Authorities, maintained schools, early instruction scenes and others on transporting out their statutory responsibilities to place, bum and do proviso for student s particular educational demands. barely Removing Barriers to acquirement- the Government s Strategy for SEN ( 2004 ) , is the chief policy which focuses on early intercession they outline many schemes which include taking barriers to acquisition, raising outlooks and Achievement and eventually presenting Improvements in Partnership. ( Reference )Some emotional and be havioral jobs may be impermanent and can be dealt with utilizing standard pastoral schemes. scarce others are so complex that outside professionals need to be involved to assist the kid header with day-to-day life and acquisition. There are many support bureaus who work closely with schools to assist kids with their jobs, such as societal emotional and behavioral troubles association and besides immature heads. raw Minds is the taking charity committed to go againsting the emotional well-being of kids and immature race and authorising their parents and attentions ( hypertext transfer protocol // accessed on 3 December 2010 ) . They run many runs and undertakings to acquire the best out of the kids who are enduring from emotional troubles. overly the kid may be referred to the Childhood and Adolescent Mental wellness Service unit which is median(prenominal)ly located at a local infirmary. Or you can inquire for the kid to be seen by the Educational Psycho logist or a Pediatrician. The jobs may go so terrible the kid may hold to see a Consultant Psychotherapist one time a hebdomad or more and if it s doing jobs with the whole household so they may see a Family Counsellor every other hebdomad.Unfortunately holding EBD may impact a student s development and besides educational accomplishment in schools. Children with EBD are at great hazard of under-achievement, educationally and in their personal development. They can besides interrupt the instruction of others. Many jobs may happen within the school scene for both the instructor and student, they frequently experience troubles such as, have trouble maintaining on undertaking, frequently become tearful or throw fits for no evident ground, have low self-esteem and frequently become victims of toughs, become toughs themselves, be overly attention-seeking through either ban behavior or clinginess and underachieve in many countries of the school socio-economic class of study. As you can conceive of a kid who performs all these features is travelling to happen it difficult to larn anything in the schoolroom and hence non accomplish his/her best. This is what causes non merely the kid to fall behind but may besides hold an impact on the remainder of the category, for illustration if a kid is persistently being riotous and naughty at some contour the instructor must step in and take action, due to this the whole category is traveling to be disturbed for nevertheless long it takes to gruntle the kid down or take him/her.As I suggested the kid may go a bully this causes extra jobs for the instructor and besides the other students. The UK authorities defines beefed-up-arming as Repetitive, willful or relentless behavior intended to do injury, although one-off incidents can in some instances besides be defined as intimidation.Intentionally noisome behavior, carried out by an person or a group. An instability of power go forthing the individual being experiencing def enseless ( domiciliate of Commons, Education and Select Committee, 2007 7-8 ) . This is a major issue for the instructor as the negatives of strong-arming are tremendous it may do absence, detachment, off-white out physical/mental unwellness, self injury and will hold a negative impact on learning. This is why it is of import for the instructor to step in every bit shortly as possible, by following the anti intimidation policy all schools have. Interventions a instructor may utilize can be split into two groups institutional and educational, institutional tactics may be things such as better supervising needed, disciplinary action and partnerships e.g. charities, constabulary. On the other manus educational tactics are seen to concentrate more on schoolroom work and peer mentoring. This may affect the kid partner offing up with a good behaved kid in category and hopefully larn from this equal how to act whilst in the schoolroom. Evidence from the glance of advancing wellness and well-being shows that undertaking strong-arming improves behaviour, attending and academic accomplishment throughout the school ( accessed 5 December 2010 ) .There are many different schemes a instructor can utilize to run into the demands of the kid with the extra demand depending on whether it is an emotional demand or a behavioral job. For illustration one scheme a instructor may utilize if a student is invariably misconducting is to seek and promote the proviso of a ordained schoolroom surround, the existent layout of a schoolroom is besides in reality of import for a instructor. As ( Kyriacou, 2001, p 74 ) states the general visual scenery of a schoolroom indicates to the students the attention that goes into supplying them with an environment which is contributing to larning. A clean and good maintain room, with appropriate resources of grounds, comfy, light and good aired, helps set up a positive outlook towards a lesson . It has a strong minute on pupils larning, behavior and what will really go on inside of the schoolroom. The subject program study by ( Elton, 1989 ) found that in that location was a connexion among the visual aspect of their schools and the behavior of their students. He recognised that even though there is no grounds that the environment of the school may hold an impact on student s behavior but states there is a much clearer grounds of connectedness between shabby, untidy schoolrooms without postings, workss or shows of pupils work and poorer criterions of behavior. Teachers on a xxiv hours to twenty-four hours footing have to undertake a broad scope of misbehavior from bordering out and naming out, non holding right equipment, noisy and late students. Discipline is one of the most nerve-racking facets of a instructors demanding function, they need good planning and accomplishment along with a genius. Teachers identify good schoolroom control and direct ion ( 32 % ) , as one of the most of import qualities that a instructor should hold ( Atici, 2007 p15 ) .A instructor s personality and instruction manners have a monolithic impact on a kid with EBD. Good teacher- pupil relationship is based on common regard ( Petty, 2004 ) . Teachers must demo a echt involvement in each and every one of their pupils. Knowing their students as persons, which operator cognizing at that place names, personalities, involvements and who their friends are. This can assist as if the instructor knows a student good they can possibly accommodate the lesson. Besides if a instructor is familiar with the kid personally and has encountered he/she has a job they can compromise with the student and non set as much military group per unit area on the students in footings of acquiring their work make category and even prep. Teachers can besides construct a resonance with the students by happening out their involvement, what they like and what they dislike. By m aking this instructors can so set this into pattern whilst learning. Teachers must train their pupils when they are playing severely as I mentioned earlier on, if a instructor has a positive relationship it will be easier for the pupil to accept the warrant and to re-establish a working relationship.Another scheme a instructor may utilize to battle bad behavior is the usage of wagess and countenances. Wagess are really powerful tools a instructor can utilize. All instructors use wagess and countenances even if they do non like the thought of giving awards, congratulations, fondness and attending in a rewarding manner. It is the most effectual manner of reenforcing good behavior and to demo the kid how supplications you are. The behavioral attack believes that the most of import doer in larning behavior is what happens instantly following that behavior. Pleasant effects are more presumable to reenforce behavior and do it more likely to go on once more. For instructors, this means it is critical on how they have sex the usage of wagess ( Smith, 1993 ) . The wide-ranging pattern of schoolroom direction involves a type of wagess giving to the kids on a day-to-day footing. However it is really of import particularly for a kid with a behavior job that wagess are refreshed on a regular basis. As ( Cowley, 2006 ) states a erratic wages might work good with the students at first, but so may bit by bit run out of steam clean as the kids get used to having the aforementioned(prenominal) wages . Sanctions are besides really of import, kids need to be cognizant of the effects they face when interrupting regulations. Sanctions may take the signifier of losing out on interruption and tiffin times, if a kid tends to be executing or acting severely in an unacceptable manner, the instructor must use their authorization.There are many issues a instructor may hold to be careful of in categorising and labelling pupils with an extra demand. If a instructor suspects that a kid has an extra demand they should non merely presume and name this kid with the upset. I believe there are several things to make foremost, the instructor should put up a conference with the parents to explicate his/her concerns. If the instructor has grounds that shows the kid is non executing at the degree they should be, so that grounds should be considered. As I say earlier, instructors spend more clip with kids during the school twelvemonth than parents do, so the instructor should be able to state reasonably easy whether a kid is underperforming or non. A kid enduring from EBD may derive a label, by holding this label may do unfortunate affects for the childand attracts a broad array of labels, which in themselves can be really harmful to kids. As Rutherford et Al, 2004 pg 39 suggests First many kids identified as holding an EBD do non like there label, Second a label may motivate instructors to follow lower behavior and achievement outlooks for the labeled kid . If the kid becomes cognizant of this they may get down to execute to the bring down outlook the instructor has given them which is known as ego pick out throughing prognostication. This could reflect on the kids and there future places within society, seeing it has normal and expected to be looked down upon.The manner in educating kids with particular educational demands has changed drastically over the old ages, e.g. segregation, compound and inclusion. First the position was that SEN s students should be segregated into specialist SEN schools which are specially built installations to suit there extra demands which are accessed by other students with a similar extra demand. There are many pros and cons for this type of instruction, as some see this as the best solution due to the students holding specialize instruction and schools set up for their extra demands nevertheless some dissent and argue that pupils learn from their equals so in footings of the extra demand of emotional an d behavioral troubles if kids are in categories full of other kids with similar jobs so they will merely larn from them whereas if they were in mainstream categories they could pick up good behavior features from their equals. As the instruction procedure moved on integrating based schools go more popular. Schools are connected at a individual point and portion right to utilize to common installations such as dining halls. The connexion points between schools and the activities that can be accommodated at that place give a strong feeling of the relationship between the two and their attack towards the integrating of pupils. So this attack would hold students with extra demands being taught in a separate portion of the school but so will be involved in assemblies and have dinner the same clip as the other kids in that school. Finally there is the inclusion position this is where all students are educated in the same classes despite of the fact they may hold extra demands. This is th e position that Long supports and what are common today. Within instruction there has been an increased tension on inclusion through a figure of statute laws such as national course of study ( 2000 ) , statuary inclusion statement, SENDA and the revise codification of pattern. Evidence from the DFES ( 2007 ) suggests that there is a greater focal point on inclusion and that from twelvemonth to twelvemonth the figure of kids with a SEN who are go toing a mainstream school is lifting. ( Hodkinson and Vickerman, 2009 )My findings show that the function of the instructor is critical when it comes to working with kids with EBD. They must non merely spot the job the kid is making but besides trade with it efficaciously. This means they have a great duty and many accomplishments to guarantee they provide the best possible attention of the kid. A instructor with good accomplishments are able to set up good relationships with their students, they have the accomplishment in being able to mak e a schoolroom clime which students are able to derive popularity without doing problem. I besides found that holding EBD non merely affects the kid s wellness and good being but besides causes them to underperform within school because of things such as low outlook and ego regard. Finally I established that labelling kids can besides hold a major consequence non merely in school but it can besides be taking outside of the schoolroom into ulterior life.REFERENCES One complete alphabetical list with no sub-headingsAtici, M ( 2007 ) . A small- graduated table survey on pupil instructors perceptual experiences of schoolroom direction and methods for covering with misbehaviors, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, Volume 12, Issue 1 March 2007, pages 15 27Cowley, S ( 2006 ) . Geting the sodomites to act, London, Continuum International Publishing GroupElton, L ( 1989 ) . Discipline in schools, London, Her Majesty s Stationary Office.Grossohme, D ( 1999 ) . The pastoral attention o f kids. New York The Howarth pastoral imperativeness.Hallahon, D and Kauffman, J ( 1994 ) . Exceeding kids Introduction to particular instruction. 9th Ed. New York Pearson Education.Hodkinson, A and Vickerman, P ( 2009 ) . Key issues in particular educational demands. London Sage publications.House of Commons, Education and Select Committee, 2007 7-8.Kyriacou, C ( 2001 ) . Essential instruction accomplishments, Cheltenham, Stanley Thorne s PublishersLong, M ( 2000 ) . The psychological science of instruction. Oxon Routledge husbandman.Petty, G ( 2004 ) . Teaching today, Cheltenham, Nelson Thorne s ltdRutherford, R, Quinn, M and Mothur, S ( 2004 ) . Handbook of research in emotional and behavioral upsets. New York The Guilford imperativeness.Smith, C and Laslett, R ( 1993 ) . Effective Classroom Management, London, RoutledgeWoolfolk, A, Hughes, M and Walkup, V ( 2007 ) . Psychology in instruction. Essex Pearson Education.hypertext transfer protocol // transfer protocol // transfer protocol //

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Ethics Dilemma Paper Essay

ETHICS DILEMMA PAPER unrivalled of the most difficult things in the criminal dependableice field is link to ethics in the criminal justice profession. Whether it beingness a division of corrections officer, police officer, or a judge. The main goal is to ensure you as a headmaster are qualification the right conclusion for the great good and that it falls within the guidelines that are set before you in the laws that fetch been written. In the recent dilemma that occurred in Broward County on February 19, 2014 is an fount of an ethics dilemma in the criminal justice field that happens oft too often. I will explain to you the nature of the dilemma, the ethical/ wrong decision that was made, the outcome of the situation, and suggest some alternative marks of actions that could wealthy person interpreted place instead and why.NATURE OF THE DILEMMAOn February 19, 2014 a Broward County Sheriffs replacement of 20 plus years on the attract conducted a traffic stop of a vehicl e traveling unlawfully in the HOV (High Occupancy Vehicle) lane. Once the substitute had the vehicle stopped he was assured by the cleaning woman in the drivers seat that she was arranging him conducting the traffic stop. Once the sheriffs deputy gained knowledge of this he proceeded to force play his way into the womans vehicle trying to grab her phone, accordingly pulling her out of the vehicle and dragging her onto the ground causing injuries in several places as a nonher deputy stood by with his gun posen. all(prenominal) the while this was going on he continued to yell at her stating she was committing a felony and telling her I know the law better than you , and placing her under arrest. The ethical dilemma this situation brings forward is was the actions taken by this deputy really necessary and justified on an ethical basis? (Miller, 2014). good DECISION MADEIn this particular situation an unethical decision was made based on the spate of the incident at softwo od. The deputy was committing a crime (felony) himself by unlawfully forcing his way into her vehicle, and detaining her against her will for a crime she did not commit. All for a childly civil usurpation (driving in an HOV lane), that could lose been handled in a totally different and professional manner. This was the only law the woman was breaking at the clock, and the only apparent cause the deputy had to go on for the actions that he took.OUTCOME OF THE smearOnce the dust settled upon this unfortunate situation, the deputy assumed and position that the woman was breaking the law by recording the auditory sensation and pictorial matter of the deputy. He assumed that he had to give the woman permission to audio record him. Unfortunately to his disadvantage the Florida courts ruled upholding a expectation of silence provision (Silverman, 2012) to their all-party law, which the courts ruled does not apply to on-duty police (or anyone in public), as long as you are not int erfering with them in conducting their duty. In this particular case the deputy appeared to be uneducated in this decree to the law that the law enforcement agency clearly neglected to educate its department on.ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION/ WHYAccording to the situation at hand some of the alternative courses of actions that the deputy could suck taken and the woman that was being stopped could have been drastically different. Ethically speaking the deputy could have not taken his actions to the extreme that he did all over the simple recording violation that he thought the woman was committing. His life was not in danger nor was there any indication of any sensual threat coming from the woman. The deputy totally handled that situation in a very unprofessional and unethical manner.On the other hand the woman could have easily been justified in using deadly force on the deputy if he was not a law enforcement officer. She would have been justified well within the guidelines of Fl oridas Justifiable Use of oblige law considering he unlawfully forced his into her car and violently dragged her out. fortuitously for him he was a law enforcement officer or he could have been killed.Another course of action for the sheriffs deputy and the department could have been to properly educate themselves and their officers of the most current laws regarding these types of situations. In addition to making sure each and every deputy gets a refresher course on the necessary use of force procedures every few years. findingIn conclusion of this ethical dilemma situation, what I can draw from this is several things. One being always treat people in a way I would like to be treated unless circumstances dictate otherwise it is the right and ethical action to take. Sometimes we just do not get that luxury of doing such an action when relations with certain types of people and situations and yes certain actions are necessary. Always take the time to educate yourself on certain l aws or information you are not sure of before acting on what you think may be correct. Just like the famous saying, Ignorance of the law is not an excuse, and this is very true but it does go both ways for law enforcement and the public.ReferencesMiller, C. (2014). photography is not a crime. Retrieved from http//, S. (2012). free minds and free markets. Retrieved from http//

Saturday, January 26, 2019

A Critique of Linda Prine’s “Abortion is not a bad thing”

In her article stillbirth is non a bad write out, published on June 24, 2013, the family medicine practitioner and the founder of the Reproductive wellness Access Project medical director Dr. Linda Prinehighly defend and stick to the uncover that miscarriage itself as an do it can be positive nevertheless our culture fails to praise the women rights in taking life-term decision and demonizes women instead for having an stillbirth. She in like manner shed the light on the importance of supporting the women on abortion to destigmatize the associated shame.Prine sees that it is quite enough to struggle for education and sprain, and here comes abortion to flurry having childrenuntil better ambience for rising children is ensured. Hearing and feeling that the tough jobs they do in the societies as expertized women atomic number 18 highly recognized, appreciated and respected is to a greater extent than quested. The articles generator begins her article with disconcertion b y the allegation that women getting abortionsare being to an extent distressed.It is the responsibility of our culture that ruin the go for of women for obtaining an abortion while the abortion familiarity itself can be affirmative. The main designate is to enlarge the right to lose abortions while decreasing the dishonor associated with it, so that the society as whole will recognize it as truly mutual and an ordinary part of life. Assertion from physicians, supporting women and their decisions, aims a big way towards removing the shame of abortion.Women are well-nigh encouraged to bring a close person to support them and then to praise that person, for the way in which he strengthens her and their relationship. While activists for abortion rights pretend that lessening the abortions number is mostly important. Prine disagrees and argues that unwanted births is the calamity, it should be step-downd. A woman can be a super mother only when she is ready and enough prepared f or it, in other words later she had pursued for substantially education and work.Thats wherefore it was good to postpone children and here appears why abortion is not a bad thing. A wise usage of social supply gives respect to all women, as well as their decisions, supportive relationships and experience which results in surpassing most of the social obstacles that blocks social development. In the article, the cause Linda Prine wants to convince us, using her life and go experience as a woman and as a family medicine practitioner. She had succeeded to an extent in doing her aim.She was utterly credible in trying to persuade us that abortion is sincerely not a bad thing bytaking advantages of the readers emotions using a animal(prenominal) languageby giving several life examples she used to experience in her career that made her certain that abortion is not that bad as the 16-year-old duette who came scared to her clinic, and how they relaxed a bit after she talked to them when they realized that she is helping them as well as the two mother/daughter pairs who realized after her visit how great their jobs when they are supporting their daughters goals in getting more education.The audience definitely empathizes with the womens psychological state and the fear she feels beforehand abortion and that after, this is the emotional appeal, it is an appeal to pathos. Being the founder of the Reproductive health Access Project medical director and a writer, people feels that the bang is more granted as an idea to adopt, and this is was another reason why she was credible. Here appealing to ethos is absolutely achieved as this is a clear whiz into the writers character and his respect to the reader.She insists that our societies are responsible for damage the womans image for having an abortion which can be almost positive, while they should be supportive and respective for the women and their decisions, supportive relationships and experience. The logic al abstract thought she followed is well detailed and with no hard terminology it could be followed easily. She emphasizes the emergency to decrease the shame associated with abortion so that it becomes something normal and undebatable. She suggests and encourages as a doctor the support of women having abortion especially from the closely people.She also sees abortion as positive in postponing children till better life situations are achieved. Logical fallacies were evaded which is excellent. To make it simple, she makes the reader well understand the importance and how honest the issue is especially when she related the positive effects of abortion to the women piece especially and to the society as a whole. She is absolutely a good persuader. One cannot deny that Prine was so logical in the way she presented her issue and supported it.Not only she let the issue enter into the readers heart, but she made that heart think how tender she is to be come to with the promotion of t he women rights by this way. She was biased in developing her argument as she neglected to state any counterargument. She even disagreed with the activists of abortion rights that they need to decrease the number of abortions. She insists instead that abortion is very normal. Outlining few opposing views would have made her argument better, no counter arguments were present.As a family doctor and writer at the same time, her role should notbe limited only to ease the abortion for females, her duty must extend to awake young couples before committing the steal of unwanted pregnancy. In her argument she only stuck to the necessity of social word sense of women having abortions but she didnt mention any moral, religious and conscious overview. Abortion is against God, it is denied by all religions. Abortion is also related to the basic kind-hearted values, so women should be less egoistic and more humanitarian regarding those unborn babies.Abortion is not safe, she shouldnt have mut ed this issue as a family doctor as she should know that abortion industry is not modulate and it can be accompanied with a mother death. She should have utter medical and social wise that it is a better alternative than having a defective fetus or child. All of those were not mentioned. Prines work presented abortion as a solid basis towhistle blow the need of the women rights in the society and the importance of respecting them. An underestimation of the effects of mentioning the counterarguments decreased her creativity. Although the way she presents her claim is so logical.

My Antonia by Willa Cather Essay

Based on the novel, Jim effects observation of Antonia and even the way he looks at her and interacts with her, it seems spend that he loved Antonia. He did not pursue her, however. Jim spent his childishness in his grandfathers house in the prairie and spent a lot of clock with Antonia. Eventually, in the second book, he spends more time with Antonia and also with the girls working in town. It is at this time that he notices the sexuality of Antonia.Hence, his descriptions of Antonia, and later of Lena, become charged with sexuality. Jim Burdens relationship with Antonia remained Platonic first, because Antonia put emphasis on the four years difference they had and looked sight at Jim as her junior. Hence, Jim felt that Antonia looked down on him as a child. When he cancelled his attention to Lena Lingard, she decided to toy with the young mankinds feelings. Antonia had to intervene to prevent Jim from being heartbroken.The relationship between Antonia and Jim remained plato nic, at least on the surface. Jim did not see through the defenses set up by Antonia to prevent their being linked romantically unneurotic. But since Jim turned his attention to Lena, Antonia felt that she should protect the emotions of Jim. Jim and Antonia are connected with the threads of childishness and of the friendship of growing up together. But Jim, being an orphan and a man, has to study and pursue his dreams for himself.His education and the very act of pursuing his dreams impasse in the way between him and Antonia. Years later when he goes substantiate and finds Antonia with her husband and her ten children, he feels affectionate to them yet he adds a wistful longing by saying that Antonia and he possessed together the precious, the incommunicable past. In the end, that was what they shared together. Works Cited Cather, Willa. My Antonia. New York Houghton Mifflin Company, 1954.

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Play Report: Our Lady of 121st Street

Immediate Responses -Easy read -Incredibly funny -Characters are so contrasted one another -The affinitys wholly linked together somehow -Very foiled by the way they found baby Rose -Loved the simple devolve of the dialogue -Had to re-read several things in order to keep the sequence uninterrupted due to the jumping around of the scenes and time. Basic Conflict The basic competitiveness of the play is the unsettling fact that somebody has stolen the corpse of their beloved nun Sister Rose. Major Events -Somebody stole Sister Roses corpse Balthazar tells Vic a story ab out a man who didnt care that his word of honor had died -Rooftop goes to confession with Father Lux for the first time in 30 years. -Inez is Rooftops ex wife -Gails and Flips family relationship is established. Gail is an actor. -Flip denies his relationship with Gail in front of Inez -The interrogation of Norca by Balthazar -Edwins and pinkys relationship is established -Edwin sends little finger out for Yod els at 1030 in the morning -Marcias asthma attack. Edwin counters care of her. Marcia tries draw poker up with Edwin. -Norca and Inez speak in the bar for the first time since Norca slept with Rooftop, Inezs ex husband. Balthazar takes Rooftop out of his confession. * Pinky kisses Father Lux * Pinky returns from getting yodels over 12 hours later. * He admits to Edwin that he spent time with Norca * Marcia expresses her concerns that Edwin exit turn into her alcoholic grandfather * Marcia wants to marry Edwin who doesnt want to surrender Pinky alone. * Flip kisses Gail in public * Balthazar confesses that he was the guy who heady to watch a game on television over firing to his sons death sight. Major Theme The major national/lesson of the play is to always put somebody else before you.If you do than you go away learn more about yourself in long run. Environment The surroundings of our scene is a bar and grill on 121st street at 2 a. m. in the morning. Sitting in the bar I female genitals see the smoke from the kitchen as it passes the lights on the ceiling. I can nip the fantastic aroma of fried food being cooked out back. I can taste the cold, salty, and seasoned French fries as I bite into them off of Marcias plate. I can hear the exit jazz music from the jukebox in the corner behind me. I can feel the cool air conditioning coming from the vents as I stand under them when I get warm. CharacterMy eccentric is Edwin Velasquez. Edwin is a super for a building on 121st street and has a great relationship with some of his tenants. Edwin dresses incredibly mainstream and boring. He hasnt shave in 3 months, so his scruff is quite visible and doesnt waste time doing his hair. Edwin loves to eat Yodels with whole milk, and smoke. Edwins not the smartest 32 year old and he had to re-do 2nd grade 3 times. He is a very happy person who has taken on a huge burden that causes him to be on edge almost all of the time. Some people may see this as a poorly at titude, but its simply a result of always worrying.Edwin has to take care of his little Brother, Pinky, by himself due to the fact that their parents are dead. Pinky is mentally challenged, and it just so happens that its Edwins fault which truly weighs down on his shoulders 24/7. He threw a brick through a window after being yelled at by his parents for calling Pinky a retard, and the brick hit Pinky on the head causing permanent damage. Edwins most important relationship is the one with his brother Pinky. Their parents passed away several years ago. Social service insisted on taking Pinky into custody, but Edwin would not let that happen, so he took full responsibility for Pinky.He feels that he owes it to his parents to be the outperform possible parental figure he can be for Pinky. Edwins overall need or desire throughout his life is to be certain Pinky is happy and safe at all times. Edwin does exceedingly well trying to protect Pinky and know exactly where he is at all time s, but Pinky makes it incredibly difficult to do so. In our scene he does not achieve it because Pinky was out for over 12 hours and did not tell Edwin where he was going to be which worried Edwin to death, but it was truly out of his hands.

Monday, January 21, 2019

Welfare Of Parkinsons Disease Sufferers Health And Social Care Essay

Parkinson s sickness is a common indisposition confronting many a(prenominal) older good deal crossways the universe. It affects the firebird nervous system and it impairs cognitive procedures, motor accomplishments and other maps. This unhealthiness for the nigh part affects the older coevals and it manifests itself with symptoms which complicate rigidness, shudder, postural instability, awkwardness in gesture and others. Other symptoms include sleep troubles, centripetal and autonomic disfunction. Parkinson s illness has a extravagantly prevalence rate among older people with roughly 500,000 people fixed from the unhealthiness in the United States. In add-on, thither be nearly 1 million people who weather from the indisposition but they move over non been diagnosed yet ( Oxtoby et. al. , 2004 ) . This makes Parkinson s distemper a austere un health which shoots pressing intercessions by society.Parkinson s unhealthiness adversely affects the casual life of people stable from it since it affects their cognitive procedures or motor accomplishments. This makes most patients rely on household and friends for endurance. As a consequence, there atomic number 18 associate plans which have been developed to father for people enduring from the unwellness. This constitution aims at analysing Parkinson s indisposition including statistics and effects on patients. various plans which absenter for patients enduring from the disease will be discussed and far intercessions needed to egress down inauspicious effects on society recommended. The discussed issues will be summarized at the terminal.Statisticss, causality and hindranceIt has been stated that there be 500,000 people enduring from Parkinson s disease in the United States and a farther 1 million who have the disease but who have non been diagnosed yet. The disease kills an average of 14,000 people yearly in the US. In the UK, about 1 % of infirmary audiences be for Parkinson s disease and the average age of patients diagnosed with the disease is 65. Globally, it is estimated that about 10 million suffer from the disease although there ar few statistics on Parkinson s disease. The cause of the disease is non known although it has been linked with contagious sciences in some instances. It has besides been linked to exposure to some second gearing louse powders. Parkinson s is normally diagnosed by a combination of methods. It is hard to put up the disease utilizing pathological agencies and clinical trials are normally employ in naming Parkinson s. Neuro-imaging is besides another heavy manner of naming the upset. The disease is normally treated utilizing medicine although at some strains complications whitethorn cash in ones chips as a consequence of trust on medicine. Treatment techniques include the usage of MAO-B inhibitors, Dopastat agonists and L-dopa. Rehabilitation and diet have besides been seen to pay heed in alleviating symptoms. In utmost instances, encephalon stimulation and surgery is used to alleviate symptoms of the disease.Psycho-social challenges confronting affected patientsThere are many challenges which patients who suffer from Parkinson s face. Since the disease impairs cognitive procedures, motor accomplishments and other maps, it makes twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities hard to execute. Acts which many people take for granted much(prenominal) as speaking, walking, bathing, bathroom control, backinging and others, may all of a sudden turn out disputing for Parkinson s patients to execute. This may do them societal loads who require round the measure attending from their households or wellness watchfulness practicians. Many patients particularly those who are hapless or marginalized are normally otiose to entrance much(prenominal) attention and they are left to endure on their ain. However, there are several(a) bases and undertakings which are developed to set aside for pati ents who can non entree effective attention. Patients enduring from symptoms of the disease may besides be unable to keep becoming piece of work chances overdue to hapless cognitive and motor accomplishments as a consequence of the disease. Inability to keep employment makes such(prenominal) patients subordinate on others. Patients who do non hold household and friends who may safekeeping for them normally do non hold entree to basic demands including wellness attention due to miss of employment. However, these excessively can profit from several plans which have been created to provide for patients enduring from the disease across the US.Another psycho-social challenge confronting many Parkinson s patients is deficiency of entree to efficacious wellness attention serve. Many patients do non hold support from household and friends and they besides do non hold employment chances. As a consequence, they are unable to afford wellness attention policy to pull off their status an d this worsens their symptoms ( Grimes, 2004 ) . If the disease is left untreated for a long clip, such patients are exposed to human death. This may explicate the high figure of people who succumb to Parkinson s disease which can be managed through intervention. In add-on, there is a high degree of psychological agony particularly for patients in the late phase of the unwellness. Such patients suffer from altered relationships, low ego regard, loss of liberty, societal isolation among other effects. These have an inauspicious consequence on rational wellness and they may take to the exploitation of other mental unwellnesss such as psychosis. It is hence of indispensable importance that a amend is establish for the unwellness. This may merely be achieved through explore.Research undertakings on Parkinson s diseaseThere are assorted look intoes which have been conducted in fellowship to understand the most effectual manner to name and handle the disease. In a question by Colu mbia University, 100 people of who half suffered from Parkinson s disease were analyze for Dopastat degrees. The healthy population acted as the control group during research. The research findings showed that people enduring from Parkinson s disease lose up to 70 % of Dopastat in the encephalon ( National Institute of Neurological Dis orders and Stroke, 2011 ) . This inclination was of import since it enabled scientists to develop new ways of naming the disease. They used flatter imaging to mensurate Dopastat degrees and find if one suffers from Parkinson s disease. input of these patients besides recorded improved motor working which is provides a damage for handling Parkinson s patients.In another research projected undertaken by the National Institute of Health, three households of Grecian and Italian beginnings which suffered from Parkinson s disease were studied. The scientists aimed at happening out if genetic sciences is a causality of Parkinson s disease. The research fi ndings showed that in all households, there was a mutant of the cistron alpha-synuclein. This determination proved to be of import since it linked genetic sciences to the development of Parkinson s disease. It besides encouraged scientists to further analyze the function of alpha-synuclein in development of Parkinson s disease. Research findings on the impact of this cistron may organize the footing of develop a remedy for the disease. However, farther research on the disease is necessary in order to develop an effectual remedy.Successful community based plans for Parkinson s disease patientsThere are assorted winning plans which have been developed to provide for patients enduring from Parkinson s disease. Some of these plans will be briefly discussed under American Parkinson s disease AssociationThis group was founded in 1961 with the aims of easing loads of Parkinson s sick persons and developing a remedy for this unwellness. It has its central offices in New York and the sh aping undertakes several endeavors to inspection and repair in forestalling and handling the disease ( American Parkinson s Disease Association, 2011 ) . It has subdivisions in several provinces and the physical composition provides attention to patients across America who suffer from Parkinson s disease. It is chiefly funded by both the authorities and the private sector. This organisation has helped over 1 million patients to day of the month and this figure is bit by bit change magnitude. The APDA organisation provides financess for research on the disease in attempts to develop remedy. Already, over $ 1 billion has been used in this first step to day of the month. The organisation besides provides support for patients who suffer from the upset. It provides medical exam concern through associating patients with qualified wellness attention professionals and guaranting that medical cost are paid. This is normally aimed at supplying the hapless and marginalized people with n o entree to wellness damages with an chance to entree high quality intervention. Finally, the APDA organisation strives to educate the the vulgar on the presence of Parkinson s disease in society and how to care for patients enduring from the disease. This is a really of import enterprise since it ensures that patients have moral and physical support from their friends, households and society at bouffant.Columbia Parkinson s SupportThis organisation was developed to supply information, support, consciousness and instruction on Parkinson s disease. It is run by voluntaries and it is a non-profit group entirely developed to provide for demands of Parkinson s patients. Most of these voluntaries are patients who besides suffer from Parkinson s. The group began runing in 1985 and it has helped over 5,000 Parkinson s patients since so. Its chief aims are back uping patients enduring from Parkinson s through fiscal or medical aid, set abouting research aimed at developing a remedy for t he disease and sensitising the populace on the presence of the disease and how to care for patients who suffer from it ( Columbia Parkinson s Support, 2011 ) . The bike group holds treatments and forums one time a hebdomad in attempts to sensitise the populace on the disease. Although this is a comparatively little group with especial(a) support, the members participate in clinical tests whenever an chance presents itself and this is an of import measure towards developing a remedy for the disease. The group sets aside $ 3,000 yearly for research intents on Parkinson s disease. This group is funded by advantageously wishers and members every bit good as other stakeholders. The local community besides plays a study function in raising financess to back up the cause of the cps group.Social intercessions which may assist pull off Parkinson s diseaseThere are assorted intercessions which should be applied in order to assist pull off the effects of the disease in society. These int ercessions will be briefly discussed below Educating populace on the diseaseEducating the populace on presence of the disease and how to care for patients who suffer from it is one of the most effectual ways of pull hit the disease. Patients who suffer from Parkinson s require support from the household, friends and community at big ( Duvoisin &038 A Sage, 2001 ) . Increasing consciousness of the disease amongst the local community enables patients enduring from this disease to hold mental and physical support from society. It besides informs the populace on the symptoms and causes of the disease thereby encouraging cheque ups and early intervention on people enduring from symptoms of the disease.More support for research on Parkinson s diseaseAlthough there are many installations which undertake research on Parkinson s disease, most of these plans are under-funded. Many organisations and groups prefer funding research for diseases such as malignant neoplastic disease and diabetes which are viewed as to a greater extent common and lifelessly. However, Parkinson s disease is besides a serious disease which requires a similar degree of attending. More support should be provided by the authorities and private houses for research on the disease in order to develop an early remedy and salvage 1000000s of lives.Bettering entree to health care insuranceThere are more than 5 million people in the US who do non hold entree to wellness acre insurance. This is due to the high cost of insurance which is beyond their fiscal abilities. There are many people who suffer from Parkinson s disease who fall in this bracket. Such patients are unable to entree medical attention to pull off the disease and this causes farther injury on their mental and physical wellness. Guaranting everyone has entree to wellness insurance is an effectual manner of contending the disease since it will promote early intercession and intervention thereby minimising the effects of the disease on soc iety ( Michele, 2009 ) .Execution of the intercessionsIn order to efficaciously implement these intercessions, the authorities and private sector should organize a partnership. Partnership between the two would do support for Parkinson s disease research and intervention easier. The community should besides be involved when implementing these intercessions. This is because patients require community support which may either be psychological or physical for their wellness to better. The authorities and local governments should guarantee that everyone has entree to wellness attention by cut downing wellness insurance costs and increasing support of wellness attention. This will guarantee that Parkinson s disease is diagnosed and treated early for the bulk of patients.Summary and decisionAssorted facets of Parkinson s disease have been discussed in item. Parkinson s is a common disease in the US and across the universe although it is mostly unmarked. Its cause is unknown and it has no remedy. Over 500,000 people have been diagnosed with Parkinson s in the US and 1 million others have the disease but have non been diagnosed. The disease affects patients physically, mentally and socially since it affects cognitive procedures, motor accomplishments and other maps, doing twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities hard to execute. Patients who have been diagnosed with Parkinson s disease suffer from psycho-social jobs such as inability to keep nice employment chances, deficiency of entree to effectual wellness attention services and psychological agony particularly for patients in the late phase of the unwellness.Assorted groups such as Columbia Parkinson s Support and American Parkinson s Disease Association contribute to bettering the public assistance of patients through increasing consciousness of the disease, funding research on the unwellness and supplying medical and fiscal aid to patients. In order to pull off the unwellness, assorted intercessions shou ld be implemented and these include educating populace on the disease, apportioning more support for research on Parkinson s disease and bettering entree to healthcare insurance by patients. This will guarantee that early diagnosing and intervention of the disease is achieved and that fewer people succumb to the effects of the disease. However, farther research is needed to develop a remedy for Parkinson s. Developing a remedy for the disease will salvage the lives of future coevalss.

Thursday, January 17, 2019

What Is the Effect of Lack of Sleep on College Students?

Running head WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF LACK OF SLEEP ON A COLLEGE STUDENTS BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR Gilbert and Weaver (2010) examined the pause quality with groomman instruction execution with university learners, whether it is complete repose deprivation or inadequate quiescence quality. This submit was to determine if miss of peacefulness or having poor quietness value in non-demoralized college students were colligate to the low academic routine. The authors be pay offations were to find the sex actship between the students environment and life style with their quiescence patterns and the force it has on their educational performance.Within the study the authors appoint that existence able to have good slumber patterns and quality is a well-favoured key part for student to have a good grade point aver advance and being able to pass either their academics. Yet, a huge mess of college students do not get plenty or a median(a) amount of cat ease. The authors too o rdain in their study that students should be much considerate on the catnap value and balance amount they should have. To the authors aw atomic number 18ness, This is the premiere study to have found a relationship between poor sleep quality and lower academic performance using a large sample size and importantly, for non depressed students alone. Gilbert and Weaver, 2010). This study allow provide my seek with the important factors of sleep and education for a college student, in order to foresee the academic routine on the students foundation of sleep quality and quantity. Also it would provide my study with the hesitation of whether our society should start regulating students to sleep enough to perform better, or quite let the students perform as they atomic number 18 insideng. The author could not prove that poor sleep patterns resulted in a lower grade point average for students, they save k newfound the important contributions that pointed to the conclusions of the study.An different limitation was that when the author performed the study, they only performed the study on freshman college students and not any higher level college students. Lastly, they didnt check the University transcripts for the students grade point average they relied on the students honesty. Mateika, Millrood, and Mitru (2002) examined the consequences of sleep on learning performance and the behavior that results from want of sleep, in adolescents. The authors did the study to see the different options to help students re-establish and balance their normal sleep and anyday routine.The expectations of authors were to find a solution to help young adults in preventing the cause of their lack of sleep, whether it was from their parents, the school, work, or medical reasons. From all the different eyeshot views of the authors, they found that, the side effects that manifest was a consequence of sleep deprivation are independentinclude inattention and poor performance in t he classroom and emotional and behavioral changes. (Mateika, et. al. , 2002). With that, they waitressed at different changes they could make, kindred changing the cadence of when school starts, or looking if the students had sleep disorder.They found that parents and school should help increase the promotion of healthy sleep patterns for the richness of the sleep on school and work performance and behavior in the student. This study provides a different perspective of how to deal with sleep deprivation, instead of looking at the students sleep patterns and lifestyle and changing that, this study looks at how parents, or schools can be change the lack of sleep in order for students to perform better in their school and work environment.This provides my study with the mentality that students are mostly not to blame for their own lack of sleep, the blame can be from the amount of workload the students get from their teachers, the time they go to school and leave, the time they go to work and leave work, or even the amount of time not being able to sleep due to underline or insomnia. So all this gives me different perspectives to look at in order to solve the problem of the cause of watchfulness.The only limitation in this study is that when looking at school workload being increased and the early time of class becomes a touch of a problem with the amount of sleep the student loses and gains. Cruess and Wells (2006) examined the results of sleep slightness on the usance of food and food qualitys, which may have a lead problem to health in issues to those who have, sleep deprivation, The authors did this study to depict the link between sleep and food intake within college students.They suppose that students who sleep less would choose them food that is less healthy, because the students are less concerned of their weight and more dependent on their mood and expediency. The authors expect to see more evidence showing that stress hormones are associate w ith the relationship between sleeping and eating, which in other words, increases in stress lead to more snacking and a decrease in the consumption of characteristic meal-type foods (Oliver and Wardle, 1999).In their study they found that what they expected to find in the beginning had happened, in which there was a difference in food intake, measured by how much calories was consumed after the night of the students incomplete lack of sleep. The study also presented that there was a huge difference in food consumption and calorie intake on partial sleepless night and a normal night of rest.This study provides my inquiry with the behavior of food with the student, how sleep deprivation can affect a students choice in food, which is chosen by the mood of the student, their health, the price, the convince, the familiarity and the students appeal towards the food, in which it all goes back to whether they had a normal nights rest, or sleepless night. There are many limitations to thi s study, the main limitations was that this study was based mostly on self-report data, which mode that it may or may not be accurate information in the study.Another important limitation was that some of the participants in the study had preserve the start of their food and sleep records in their journals on different days, which do it hard to frame the time of the study accurately. Moreno, Louzada, and Pereira (2010) examined the role of ecological aspects in sleep time among adolescents who have less technology and adolescents who have work up technology and how it changes the relationship of their sleep patterns.The authors performed this study to bring out an opportunity to look at natural and ecological influences on different characteristics that is related to sleep behaviors the authors wanted to understand why adolescents who have electric lights, and other high advance resources have a higher level of sleep deprivation, while those who have less technology have enou gh sleep and are able to perform better. Their expectation for the study was that there would be an interaction between the natural and ecological factors in the sleep wheel of the adolescents.The study help the authors find that the occurrence of electric lighting in home of the adolescent is a critical factor that is related to the duration of the sleep, which results in regular amount of sleep to irregular amount of sleep in adolescents. These results are important in my study, because it supports the ideas that adolescents having advanced technology, is important when find whether it is a factor in agniseing it results in sleep deprivation. Kopasz et. al. 2008) examined that adolescent to not sleep enough and have different sleep patterns every day, due to adolescents decrease in sleep duration on school days and increase in the hebdomadends. The purpose of this study for the authors was to find the relation between adolescents sleep schedule, the environments of the student and daytime tasks, and to look at the results with the sleep records the adolescents kept. The expectations of this study were to find a difference between the sleep patterns of during the week and the weekends, and the difference between the ages of the students and how late or early they slept.The authors found what they were expecting, there was a significant difference between week and weekend nights, and the honest-to-goodness students slept almost an hour less per night compared with the youngest. (Kopasz, 2008). They found as our age increases, are sleep duration decreases. This study is important to my research, because it shows a new perspective of the topic, where it gives evidence of how our generation grows, we lose more sleep because of the changes in education, in life events, and our society.This study shows how teenager are suffering the consequences of having sleep deprivation due to having to work and go to school, on top of family issues and the workload teacher s give students. This is important to my study because the authors foretell that sleep deprivations in found adults is a global problem with severe consequences. The inconsistencies in the body of research are that there is not much research or experiments in the relationship of sleep and the brain with a college student.There is much said about students behaviors with there is lack of sleep in their daily routines, but to know what happens, or what goes on in the brain, when it suffers from sleep deprivation will give my study a better perspective of the bigger picture. The gap that are in the body of this literature review is important, because it gives my study resources to look at and explore in which the other studies did not. My study will do research in both the brain and the behavior in all levels of non-depressed college students who have sleep deprivation and figure out what is the main cause of the students lack of sleep in their college lifestyle.References Gilbert, S. P . , and Weaver, C. C. (2010). Sleep Quality and Academic Performance in University Students A Wake Up Call For College Psychologists. Journal Of College Student Psychotherapy, 24(4), 295-306. inside 1080/87568225. 2010. 509245. Mateika J. H. , Millrood, D. L. , and Mitru, G. (2002) The Impact Of Sleep On Learning And Behavior In Adolescents. Teachers College Records, 104(4), 704-726. inside 10. 1111/1467-9620. 00176. Cruess, D. G. , and Wells, T. T. (2006). Effects of Partial Sleep Deprivation On Food phthisis And Food Choice. Psychology & Health, 21(1), 79-86. doi 10. 1080/1476820500102301. Oliver, G. and Wardle, J. (1999). Perceived Effects Of examine On Food Choice. Physiology and Behavior, 66, 511-515. Moreno, C. C. , Louzada, F. , and Pereira, E. (2010). Not All Adolescents argon Sleep disadvantaged A Study Of Rural Populations. Sleep And Biological Rhythms, 8(4), 267-273. doi 10. 1111/j. 1479-8425. 2010. 00458. x. Kopasz, M. M. , Loessi, B. B. , Riemann, D. D. , Valerius, G. G. , Voderholzer, U. U. (2008). Are Adolescents Chronically Sleep-Deprived? An Investigation Of Sleep habits Of Adolescents In The Southwest Of Germany. Child Care, Health, And Development, 34(5), 549-556. doi 10. 1111/j. 1365-2214. 2008. 00845. x.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

My Polish Teachers Tie Essay

Dunmore presents the relationship between Carla and the head as if Carla despises him. He sees his provide together for ten minutes once a week, and as customary he had a pile of papers in earlier of him. This citation shows that Carla finds him unpleasant, as 10 minutes out of one week is non a long time. She expresses this as if he should be more fondness towards the staff of the school. I think Dunmore added this bit of information to give the lector a better discernment of Carlas overall relationships with people in the school, as if they just glance over her, as if she is nothing. The part of as usual he had a pile of papers in front of him shows us that Carla is thinking of what it must be like to be the head, what it could be like to be of importance, this is why she despises him, because at the start, she sees herself as worthless with the track she describes her job.During Carlas voyage of discovery, she begins to lean a lot of things intimately herself which she h ad never come to realise were her main characteristics which together, all created the self conscious womanhood she is. Ashamed of her charge, Carla is portrayed to under estimate what she is capable of. This assumption is created from the adscititious feedback others give her and the way they fluctuate their personas. Oh, er- Mrs, er- Carter Showing very little fellowship of his staff, the head teacher is illustrated to be an arrogant, audacious, aloof of a creature. With minute understanding of who this hesitant lady is, this shows just how little he cares and that he wouldnt ever go out of his way to learn more about his staff and where they come from. Evidently he doesnt even spot Carlas name, never mind her previous nationality. Hiding behind her facade, Carla is in truth an ashamed woman who is embarrassed to tell her pen buddy what her career really is all about. As a reader, I determine good-will towards Carla as the writer has shown her tactual sensationings to be very emotional and hidden which is a way no one deserves to feel.As a mother, Carla has to make herself feel more confident by doing things to others. For example, Carla wanted to Let him think Id written once and then not bothered. I feel this implies that Carla wants Steve to feel she isnt interested giving herself a confidence elevate as this will make Carla believe that he is thriving for her to reply, too meaning that someone does actually want to talk to her. Writing to Steve has meant that he would become close to Carla because of who she is as a person, not because of her profession. Due to her privation of confidence, she believes that shed Never had letters like that before, and I was never vent to again, not after Steve knew who I really was. However, her polish pen pal did actually like her for who she was

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

C# Step by Step Codes

SREEKANTH C graduation BY tonicity Microsoft ocular studio C. cabb board Step By Step 1 SREEKANTH C gradation BY timber Introduction Microsoft ocular C is a reigning exclusively simple words aimed primarily at developers creating finishs by utilize the Microsoft . cyberspace Frame bl bar in. It inherits m any of the best features of C++ and Microsoft optical Basic, but a few(prenominal)er of the inconsistencies and anachronisms, importing in a cleaner and often logical nomenclature. The advent of C 2. 0 has exitn several important stark naked features added to the delivery, including Generics, Iterators, and anonymous orders.The development surroundings provided by Microsoft visual studio a vocalismment 2005 reserves these powerful features indulgent to go for, and the many sunrise(prenominal) wizards and enhancements included in visual studio 2005 stomach greatly ameliorate your productivity as a developer. The aim of this book is to teach you the basic principle of scheduling with C by apply ocular studio 2005 and the . pelf Frame puzzle out. You provide learn the features of the C langu succession, and thus utilisation them to material body finishings rill on the Microsoft Windows operating system.By the time you complete this book, you solelyow overhear a thorough understanding of C and depart chasten roughly utilize it to con melodic phraseation Windows Forms applications, access Microsoft SQL Server databases, develop ASP. NET Web applications, and develop and hire a Web service. commence I Introducing Microsoft optic C and Microsoft ocular studio apartment 2005 Chapter 1 en runer to C After finish this chapter, you entrust be able to Use the optic studio apartment 2005 scheduling surroundings. take a C ease application. Use workspaces. Create a C Windows Forms application. Microsoft optical C is Microsofts powerful, comp adeptnessnt-oriented language.C plays an important role in the architecture of the Microsoft . NET Framework, and ab step up people fork out drawn comparisons to the role that C compete in the development of UNIX. If you already k without delay a language such(prenominal) as C, C++, or Java, youll find the syntax of C reassuringly familiar beca usance it uses the aforesaid(prenominal) curly brackets to de enclose blocks of regulation. However, if you atomic number 18 used to political plat public figureming in other languages, you should soon be able to pick up the syntax and feel of C you just need to learn to beat the curly brackets and semi-colons in the right place. Hopefull this is just the book to encourage youIn Part I, youll learn the fundamentals of C. Youll discover how to restrain multi volt-ampereiates and how to use hustlers such as add-on (+) and minus (-) to bring into being valuate. Youll put on how to write officialitys and pass arguments to methods. Youll also learn how to use hireion narratives such a s if and iteration instructions such as while. Fin all in ally, youll understand how C uses removeions to cargo deck misconducts in a graceful, easy-to-use manner. These bindingics operate the core of C, and from this solid foundation, youll impart to much advanced features in Part II finished Part VI. 2 SREEKANTH C feel BY measuring stickBeginning Programming with the optic studio 2005 Environment optic studio apartment 2005 is a tool-rich architectural planmeme environment seeing all the functionality youll need to shit large or small C working disunites. You do- nonhing even create projects that seamlessly combine modules from divergent languages. In the premier exercise, youll undertake the optic studio apartment 2005 scheduling environment and learn how to create a console application. Create a console application in Visual studio apartment 2005 1. In Microsoft Windows, jaw the take push, record to All Programs, and consequently in seat to Micro soft Visual studio apartment 2005. 2. bust the Microsoft Visual studio apartment 2005 icon. Visual studio 2005 starts. eminence If this is the jump time that you make believe run Visual studio 2005, you skill see a negotiationue loge sprying you to need your default development environment hard-boiledtings. Visual studio 2005 fag sew together itself according your p confer withred development language. The divers(a) talks recesses and tools in the structured development environment (IDE) go out leave their default selections set for the language you 3 SREEKANTH C flavor BY stones throw choose. discern Visual C Development Settings from the constitute, and t here(predicate)fore(prenominal) diffuse the lift off Visual Studio passing.After a short delay, the Visual Studio 2005 IDE turn outs. 3. On the File menu, leg to New, and therefore cad hold. The New escort dialog loge move overs. This dialog stripe allows you to create a youthful project de velopment motley templates, such as Windows industry, Class Library, and locker Application, that specify the subject of application you exigency to create. comment The effective templates available depend on the translation of Visual Studio 2005 you be employ. It is also possible to define untested project templates, but that is beyond the eye socket of this book. 4.In the Templates pane, put over the Console Application icon. 5. In the pickle field, lawsuit C chronicles and SettingsYourNameMy written documentsMicrosoft undertakeVisual CSharp Step by StepChapter 1. ex switch the schoolbook YourName in this channel with your Windows substance abuser rear. To save a morsel of space passim the rest of this book, we result simply refer to the path CDocuments and SettingsYourNameMy Documents as your My Documents tract. 4 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP NOTE If the folder you specify does non exist, Visual Studio 2005 creates it for you. 6. In the Name field, guinea pig school text editionhullo. . Ensure that the Create Directory for outcome check box is analyze and then detent OK. The impertinently project opens. The menu standard at the top of the screen provides access to the features youll use in the programming environment. You bear use the keyboard or the cower to access the menus and involves simply as you posterior in all Windows-based programs. The tool forefend is resolved beneath the menu bar and provides freeing shortcuts to run the most frequently used commands. The law and text editor in chief windowpane occupying the main part of the IDE demonstrations the table of contents of ejaculate rouse a bearings.In a multi- institutionalize project, each etymon con theater has its own tab pocked with the name of the root accommodate. You go off check off the tab once to bring the named reference point deposit to the foreground in the economy and text edition editor in chief window. The resolving Explorer divulges the call of the files associated with the project, among other items. You hindquarters also prototype- natter a file name in the ancestor Explorer to bring that source file to the foreground in the Code and text edition editor in chief window. 5 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP Before writing the write in polity, examine the files listed in the effect Explorer, which Visual Studio 2005 has created as part of your project Solution textual matter howdy This is the top-level resolving power file, of which t present is one per application. If you use Windows Explorer to olfaction at your My DocumentsVisual CSharp Step by StepChapter 1 text editionHello folder, youll see that the actual name of this file is textHello. sln. individually beginning file breaks references to one or more project files. text editionHello This is the C project file. Each project file references one or more files discontinueing the source decree and other items for the project. All the sourc e legislation in a single project moldiness be written in the same programming language.In Windows Explorer, this file is actually called text editionHello. csproj, and it is break ind in your My DocumentsVisual CSharp Step by StepChapter 1 textual matterHellotextHello folder. Properties This is a folder in the textbookHello project. If you expand it, you allow see that it contains a file called AssemblyInfo. cs. AssemblyInfo. cs is a supererogatory file that you tidy sum use to add attributes to a program, such as the name of the author, the date the program was written, and so on. There be additional attributes that you drop use to neuter the way in which the program provide run.These attributes be outside the scope of this book. References This is a folder that contains references to compiled computer code that your application toilette use. When code is compiled, it is switch overed into an assembly and awardn a unique name. Developers use assemblies to package up useful bits of code that they have written for distribution to other developers that might destiny to use them in their applications. Many of the features that you will be employ when writing applications using this book will make use of assemblies provided by Microsoft with Visual Studio 2005. Program. csThis is a C source file, and is the one displayed in the Code and schoolbook castor window when the project is freshman created. You will write your code in this file. It contains roughly code that Visual Studio 2005 provides mechanically, which you will examine shortly. Writing Your First Program The Program. cs file defines a severalise called Program that contains a method called of import. All methods mustinessiness be defined deep down a mob. The chief(prenominal) method is specialit forgeates the programs entry point. It must be a electro motionless method. (Methods ar discussed in 6 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP Chapter 3, Writing Methods and Applying Scope. electrostatic methods atomic number 18 discussed in Chapter 7, Creating and Managing Classes and Objects. The important method is discussed in Chapter 11, Understanding literary argument Arrays. ) IMPORTANT C is a contingency-sensitive language. You must spell Main with a capital M. In the quest exercises, youll write the code to display the substance Hello humans in the console youll build and run your Hello World console application youll learn how namepaces be used to part code elements. Write the code using IntelliSense technology 1. In the Code and Text Editor window displaying the Program. s file, place the cursor in the Main method by and by the opening brace, and subject Console. As you example the letter C at the start of the word Console an IntelliSense list appears. This list contains all of the legitimate C keywords and data faces that are valid in this context. You behind either maintain typecastwriting, or scroll finished the list and double-cli ck the Console item with the mouse. Alternatively, after you have typed Con, the Intellisense list will automatically home in on the Console item and you bottom of the inning touch the Tab, Enter, or Spacebar key to select it. Main should look give care this static void Main( twine args) Console NOTE Console is a constitutive(a) class that contains the methods for displaying piths on the screen and getting input from the keyboard. 2. shell a period immediately after Console. other Intellisense list appears displaying the methods, properties, and fields of the Console class. 3. Scroll down through the list until WriteLine is selected, and then infatuation Enter. Alternatively, you faeces continue typing until WriteLine is selected and then press Enter. The IntelliSense list closes, and the WriteLine method is added to the source file. Main should now look the comparables of this static void Main( guide args) Console. WriteLine 4. Type an open parenthesis. Another IntelliS ense tip appears. This tip displays the parameters of the WriteLine method. In fact, WriteLine is an overloaded method, nub that Console contains more than one method named Write Line. Each meter culture of the WriteLine method nookie be used to output different 7 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP types of data. (Overloaded methods are discussed in Chapter 3. ) Main should now look deal this static void Main( soak up up args) Console. WriteLine( You can click the tips up and down arrows to scroll through the overloaded versions of WriteLine. . Type a close parenthesis, followed by a semicolon. Main should now look like this static void Main( get out args) Console. WriteLine() 6. Type the string Hello World among the left hand and right parentheses. Main should now look like this static void Main(string args) Console. WriteLine(Hello World) solicit Get into the habit of typing matched melaniseacter pairs, such as ( and ) and and , onwards filling in their contents. Its easy to forget the closing character if you wait until after youve entered the contents. 8 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP NOTEYou will frequently see tonal patterns of code containing two forward slashes followed by ordinary text. These are comments. They are treat by the compiler, but are genuinely useful for developers because they military service chronicle what a program is actually doing. For example Console. ReadLine() // Wait for the user to press the Enter key All text from the two slashes to the end of the line will be skipped by the compiler. You can also add multi-line comments scratch line with /*. The compiler will skip e solidlything until it finds a */ sequence, which could be many lines abase down.You are actively encouraged to document your code with as many comments as undeniable. inning and run the console application 1. On the get up menu, click pull in Solution. This action causes the C code to be compiled, resulting in a program that you can run. The Output wi ndows appears below the Code and Text Editor window. a. crownwork If the Output window does not appear, click the view menu, and then click Output to display it. b. In the Output window, messages connatural to the undermentioned show how the program is being compiled and display the details of any errors that have 9 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP occurred.In this case there should be no errors or warnings, and the program should build successfully c. &8212&8212 cast started Project TextHello, Configuration correct some(prenominal) CPU &8212d. Csc. exe /config /nowarn17011702&8243 /errorreport prompt /warn4 e. Compile complete - 0 errors, 0 warnings f. TextHello -> CDocuments and SettingsJohnMy DocumentsMicrosoft Press g. ============ Build 1 succeeded or up-to-date, 0 failed, 0 skipped ======== h. NOTE An asterisk after the file name in the tab higher up the Code and Text Editor window indicates that the file has been changed since it was stand firm saved.There is no need to m anually save the file beforehand building because the Build Solution command automatically saves the file. 2. On the correct menu, click Start Without Debugging. A ascendancy window opens and the program runs. The message Hello World appears, and then the program waits for the user to press any key, as shown in the pursuance graphic 3. Ensure that the Command window displaying the program has the focus, and then press Enter. The Command window closes and you excrete to the Visual Studio 2005 programming environment. NOTE If you run the program using Start Debugging on the Debug menu, the pplication runs but the Command window closes immediately without waiting for you to press a key. 4. In the Solution Explorer, click the TextHello project (not the resolvent), and then click exhibit All Files button. Entries named bin and obj appear above the C source filename calling. These entries equate directly to folders named bin and obj in the project folder (My DocumentsVisual CSharp Step by StepChapter 1TextHelloTextHello). These folders are created when you build your application, and they contain the workable version of the program and some other files. 10 SREEKANTHC STEP BY STEP 5. 5. In the Solution Explorer, click the + to the left of the bin entry. Another folder named Debug appears. 6. 6. In the Solution Explorer, click the + to the left of the Debug entry. Three entries named TextHello. exe, TextHello. pdb, and TextHello. vshost. exe appear. The file TextHello. exe is the compiled program, and it is this file that runs when you click Start Without Debugging in the Debug menu. The other two files contain in assortmentation that is used by Visual Studio 2005 if you run your program in Debug mode (when you click Start Debugging in the Debug menu).Command Line Compilation You can also compile your source files into an practicable file manually by using the csc command-line C compiler. You must first complete the following steps to set up your environment 1 . On the Windows Start menu, point to All Programs, point to Microsoft Visual Studio 2005, point to Visual Studio Tools, and click Visual Studio 2005 Command Prompt. A Command window opens, and the envionment volt-ampereiables PATH, LIB, and INCLUDE are configured to include the locations of the dissimilar . NET Framework libraries and utilities. TIP You can also run the vcvarsall. at script, located in the CProgram FilesMicrosoft Visual Studio 8VC folder, if you ask to configure the environment variables while running in an ordinary Command Prompt window. 2. In the Visual Studio 2005 Command Prompt window, type the following command to go to the My DocumentsMicrosoft PressVisual CSharp Step by StepChapter 1TextHelloTextHello project folder 3. cd Documents and SettingsYourNameMy DocumentsMicrosoft PressVisual CSharp Step by StepChapter 1TextHelloTextHello 4. Type the following command csc /outTextHello. exe Program. cs 11 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEPThis command creates the execu rem and file TextHello. exe from the C source file. If you dont use the /out command-line option, the executable file takes its name from the source file and is called Program. exe. 5. dominate the program by typing the following command TextHello The program should run exactly as before, except that you will not see the Press any key to continue prompt. using Namespaces The example you have seen so far is a very small program. However, small programs can soon grow into bigger programs. As a program grows, it creates two jobs. First, more code is harder to understand and maintain than less code.Second, more code usually operator more label more named data, more named methods, and more named classes. As the number of names increases so does the likelihood of the project build failing because two or more names clash (especially when the program uses third-party libraries). In the past, programmers tried to solve the name-clashing worry by prefixing names with some sort of qualifier (or set of qualifiers). This solution is not a computable one because its not scalable names become yener and you spend less time writing software and more time typing (there is a difference) and reading and re-reading incomprehensibly long names.Namespaces help solve this problem by creating a named container for other identifiers, such as classes. Two classes with the same name will not be staccato with each other if they live in different namespaces. You can create a class named salute inside the namespace named TextHello, like this namespace TextHello class greet You can then refer to the Greeting class as TextHello. Greeting in your own programs. If someone else also creates a Greeting class in a different namespace and installs it on your computer, your programs will still work as expected because they are using the TextHello.Greeting class. If you want to refer the new Greeting class, you must specify that you want the class from the new namespace. It is good pract ice to define all your classes in namespaces, and the Visual Studio 2005 environment follows this recommendation by using the name of your project as the toplevel namespace. The . NET Framework Software Developer Kit (SDK) also hold fasts to this recommendation every class in the . NET Framework lives inside a namespace. For 12 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP example, the Console class lives inside the transcription namespace. This means that its fully qualified name is actually System.Console. Of course, if you had to write the fully qualified name of a class every time, it would be no better that just appellation the class SystemConsole. Fortunately, you can solve this problem with a using directing. If you return to the TextHello program in Visual Studio 2005 and look at the file Program. cs in the Code and Text Editor window, you will notice the following avowals using System using System. Collections. Generic using System. Text The using statement brings a namespace into scope, a nd you no longer have to explictly qualify goals with the namespace they belong to in the code that follows.The one-third namespaces shown contain classes that are used so often that Visual Studio 2005 automatically adds these using statements every time you create a new project. You can add further using directives to the top of a source file. The following exercise demonstrates the concept of namespaces further. Try longhand names 1. In the Code And Text Editor window, comment out the using directive at the top of Program. cs //using System 2. On the Build menu, click Build Solution. The build fails, and the Output pane displays the following error message twice (once for each use of the Console class)The name Console does not exist in the current context. 3. In the Output pane, double-click the error message. The identifier that caused the error is selected in the Program. cs source file. TIP The first error can affect the reliability of subsequent diagnostic messages. If your build has more than one diagnostic message, correct solitary(prenominal) the first one, ignore all the others, and then rebuild. This strategy works best if you keep your source files small and work iteratively, building frequently. 4. In the Code and Text Editor window, edit the Main method to use the fully qualified name System. Console.Main should look like this static void Main(string args) System. Console. WriteLine(Hello World) 13 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP NOTE When you type System. , notice how the names of all the items in the System namespace are displayed by IntelliSense. 5. On the Build menu, click Build Solution. The build succeeds this time. If it doesnt, make sure Main is exactly as it appears in the preceding code, and then try building again. 6. Run the application to make sure it still works by clicking Start Without Debugging on the Debug menu. In the Solution Explorer, click the + to the left of the References entry.This displays the assemblies referenced by the Solution Explorer. An assembly is a library containing code written by other developers (such as the . NET Framework). In some cases, the classes in a namespace are terminald in an assembly that has the same name (such as System), although this does not have to be the casesome assemblies hold more than one namespace. Whenever you use a namespace, you also need to make sure that you have referenced the assembly that contains the classes for that namespace otherwise your program will not build (or run). Creating a Windows Forms ApplicationSo far you have used Visual Studio 2005 to create and run a basic Console application. The Visual Studio 2005 programming environment also contains everything youll need to create graphical Windows applications. You can conception the degree-based user user interface of a Windows application interactively by using the Visual normaler. Visual Studio 2005 then generates the program statements to put on the user interface youve de sign uped. From this explanation, it follows that Visual Studio 2005 allows you to maintain two views of the application the introduction understand and the Code purview.The Code and Text Editor window (showing the program statements) double as the Design View window (allowing you to lay out your user interface), and you can switch between the two views whenever you want. In the following set of exercises, youll learn how to create a Windows program in Visual Studio 2005. This program will display a simple manikin containing a text box where you can enter your name and a button that, when clicked, displays a personalized greeting in a message box.You will use the Visual Designer to create your user interface by placing binds on a form inspect the code generated by Visual Studio 2005 use the Visual Designer to change the restrainer properties use the Visual Designer to size the form write the code to suffice to a button click and run your first Windows program. Create a Windows project in V isual Studio 2005 1. On the File menu, point to New, and then click Project. The New Project dialog box opens. 2. In the Project Types pane, click Visual C. 14 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP 3. In the Templates pane, click the Windows Application icon. . Ensure that the Location field refers to your My DocumentsVisual CSharp Step by StepChapter 1 folder. 5. In the Name field, type WinFormHello. 6. In the Solutions field, ensure that Create new Solution is selected. This action creates a new solution for guardianship the Windows application. The alternative, Add to Solution, will add the project to the TextHello solution. 7. dog OK. Visual Studio 2005 closes your current application (prompting you to save it first of necessary) and creates and displays an empty Windows form in the Design View window.In the following exercise, youll use the Visual Designer to add three go overs to the Windows form and examine some of the C code automatically generated by Visual Studio 2005 to follow thr ough these controls. Create the user interface 1. maunder the Toolbox tab that appears to the left of the form in the Design View. The Toolbox appears, uncomplete(p)ly obscuring the form and displaying the various components and controls that you can place on a Windows form. 2. In the Toolbox, click the + sign by Common Controls to display a list of controls that are used by most Windows Forms applications. 15 SREEKANTHC STEP BY STEP 3. Click Label, and then click the visible part of the form. A Label control is added to the form, and the Toolbox disappears from view. TIP If you want the Toolbox to remain visible but not hide any part of the form, click the Auto traverse button to the right in Toolbox title bar (it looks like a pin). The Toolbox appears permanently on the left side of the Visual Studio 2005 window, and the Design View shrinks to accommodate it. (You might lose a lot of space if you have a low-resolution screen. ) Clicking the Auto wrap up button once more cause s the Toolbox to disappear again. 4.The Label control on the form is probably not exactly where you want it. You can click and heave the controls you have added to a form to reposition them. Using this technique, move the Label control so that it is positioned towards the upper-left corner of the form. (The exact attitude is not critical for this application. ) 5. On the View menu, click Properties Window. The Properties window appears on the right side of the screen. The Properties window allows you to set the properties for items in a project. It is context sensitive, in that it displays the properties for the currently selected item.If you click anywhere on the form displayed in the Design View, you will see that the Properties windows displays the properties for the form itself. If you click the Label control, the window displays the properties for the label instead. 6. Click the Label control on the form. In the Properties window, locate the Text position, change it from lab el1 to Enter your name, and then press Enter. On the form, the labels text changes to Enter Your Name. TIP By default, the properties are displayed in categories. If you prefer to display the properties in alphabetical order, click the Alphabetical button that appears above the properties list. . boasting the Toolbox again. Click TextBox, and then click the form. A TextBox control is added to the form. shine the TextBox control so that it is directly underneath the Label control. TIP When you drag a control on a form, alignment handles appear automatically when the control becomes aligned vertically or horizontally with other controls. This give you a quick visual cue for making sure that controls are lined up neatly. 8. While the TextBox control is selected, locate the Text dimension in the Properties window, type here, and then press Enter. On the form, the word here appears in the text box. 9.In the Properties window, find the (Name) berth. Visual Studio 2005 gives controls a nd forms default names, which, although they are a good starting point, are not always very meaningful. Change the name of the TextBox control to userName. 16 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP NOTE We will talk more about naming conventions for controls and variables in Chapter 2, rangeing with Variables, Operators, and Expressions. 10. Display the Toolbox again, click Button, and then click the form. Drag the Button control to the right of the TextBox control on the form so that it is aligned horizontally with the text box. 11.Using the Properties window, change the Text property of the Button control to OK. Change its (Name) property to ok. The caption on the button changes. 12. Click the Form1 form in the Design View window. notice that size handles (small squares) appear on the lower edge, the right-hand edge, and the righthand bottom corner of the form. 13. run for the mouse pointer over the resize handle. The pointer changes to a slanting double-headed arrow. 14. Hold down the lef t mouse button, and drag the pointer to resize the form. Stop dragging and release the mouse button when the spacing almost the controls is roughly exist.TIP You can resize many controls on a form by selecting the control and dragging one of the resize handles that appears in the corners of the control. measure that a form has only one resize handle, whereas most controls have four (one on each corner). On a form, any resize handles other than the one in the lower-right corner would be superfluous. Also strain that some controls, such as Label controls, are automatically size based on their contents and cannot be resized by dragging them. The form should now look similar to the one in the following graphic. 1. In the Solution Explorer, right-click the file Form1. s, and then click View Code. The Form1. cs source file appears in the Code and Text Editor window. There are now two tabs named Form1. cs above the Code and Text Editor/Design View window. You can click the one suffixed with Design to return to Design View window at any time. Form1. cs contains some of the code automatically generated by Visual Studio 2005. You should note the following elements 17 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP o using directives Visual Studio 2005 has written a number of using directives at the top of the source file (more than for the previous example). For example using System. Windows. FormsThe additional namespaces contain the classes and controls used when building graphical applicationsfor example, the TextBox, Label, and Button classes. o The namespace Visual Studio 2005 has used the name of the project as the name of the toplevel namespace namespace WinFormHello o A class Visual Studio 2005 has written a class called Form1 inside the WinForm Hello namespace namespace WinFormHello partial class Form1 NOTE For the time being, ignore the partial keyword in this class. I will describe its purpose shortly. This class implements the form you created in the Design View. Clas ses are discussed in Chapter 7. ) There does not appear to be much else in this classthere is a short bit of code known as a constructor that calls a method called InitializeComponent, but nothing else. (A constructor is a special method with the same name as the class. It is executed when the form is created and can contain code to initialize the form. Constructors are also discussed in Chapter 7. ) However, Visual Studio 2005 is transacting a sleight of hand and is hiding a few things from you, as I will now demonstrate. In a Windows Forms application, Visual Studio 2005 actually generates a potentially large amount of code.This code performs proceedings such as 18 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP creating and displaying the form when the application starts, and creating and positioning the various controls on the form. However, this code can change as you add controls to a form and change their properties. You are not expected to change this code (indeed, any changes you make are likel y to be overwritten the next time you edit the form in the Design View), so Visual Studio 2005 hides it from you. To display the hide code, return to the Solution Explorer, and click the Show All Files button.The bin and obj folders appear, much as they did with the Console application you developed in the first part of this chapter. However, notice that Form1. cs now has a + sign next to it. If you click this + sign, you see a file called Form1. Designer. cs, and a file called Form1. resx. Double-click the file Form1. Designer. cs to display its contents in the Code and Text Editor window. You will see the remaining code for the Form1 class in this file. C allows you to sunder the code for a class across multiple source files, as long as each part of the class is marked with the partial keyword.This file includes a sphere labelled Windows Form Designer generated code. Expanding this region by clicking the + sign reveals the code created and maintained by Visual Studio 2005 when you edit a form using the Design View window. The actual contents of this file include o The InitializeComponent method This method is mentioned in the file Form1. cs. The statements inside this method set the properties of the controls you added to the form in the Design View. (Methods are discussed in Chapter 3. ) Some of the statements in this method that correspond to the actions you performed using the Properties window are shown below .. toffee-nosed void InitializeComponent() this. label1 = new System. Windows. Forms. Label() this. userName = new System. Windows. Forms. TextBox() this. ok = new System. Windows. Forms. Button() this. label1. Text = Enter your name this. userName. Text = here this. ok. Text = OK o Three fields Visual Studio 2005 has created three fields inside the Form1 class. These fields appear near the end of the file secret System. Windows. Forms. Label label1 19 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP cloak-and-dagger System. Windows. Forms. TextBox userName pr ivate System. Windows. Forms. Button ok .. These fields implement the three controls you added to the form in Design View. (Fields are discussed in Chapter 7. ) It is expenditure restating that although this file is interesting to look at, you should never edit its contents yourself. Visual Studio 2005 automatically updates this file when you make changes in the Design View. Any code that you need to write yourself should be placed in the Form1. cs file. At this point you might well be wondering where the Main method is and how the form gets displayed when the application runs remember that Main defines the point at which the program starts.In the Solution Explorer, you should notice other(prenominal) source file called Program. cs. If you double-click this file the following code appears in the Code and Text Editor window namespace WinFormHello static class Program /// /// The main entry point for the application. /// STAThread static void Main() Application. EnableVisualStyle s() Application. Run(new Form1()) You can ignore most of this code. However, the key statement is Application. Run(new Form1()) This statement creates the form and displays it, whereupon the form takes over. In the following exercise, youll learn how to add code that runs when he OK button on the form is clicked. Write the code for the OK button 1. Click the Form1. csDesign tab above the Code and Text Editor window to display Form1 in the Design View. 2. sustain the mouse pointer over the OK button on the form, and then double-click the button. The Form1. cs source file appears in the Code and Text Editor window. Visual Studio 2005 has added a method called ok_Click to the Form1 class. (It has also added a statement to the InitializeComponent method in the Form1. Designer. cs file to automatically call ok_Click when the OK button is 20 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP clicked.It does this by using a delegate type delegates are discussed in Chapter 16, Delegates and Events. ) 3. Type the MessageBox statement shown below inside the ok_Click method. The complete method should look like this 4. private void ok_Click(object sender, System. EventArgs e) 5. 6. MessageBox. Show(Hello + userName. Text) Make sure you have typed this code exactly as shown, including the trailing semicolon. Youre now ready to run your first Windows program. Run the Windows program 1. On the Debug menu, click Start Without Debugging. Visual Studio 2005 saves your work, compiles your program, and runs it.The Windows form appears 2. Enter your name, and then click OK. A message box appears welcoming you by name. 3. Click OK in the message box. The message box closes. 4. In the Form1 window, click the Close button (the X in the upper-right corner of the form). The Form1 window closes. If you want to continue to the next chapter Keep Visual Studio 2005 running, and turn to Chapter 2. If you want to exit Visual Studio 2005 now On the File menu, click Exit. If you see a Save dialog box, click Y es to save your work. Chapter 1 Quick Reference TO Do this KeyCombination 21 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP Create a onsole application new On the File menu, point to New, and then click Project to open the New Project dialog box. For the project type, select Visual C. For the template, select Console Application. Select a directory for the project files in the Location box. Choose a name for the project. Click OK. Create a Windows application new On the File menu, point to New, and then click Project to open the New Project dialog box. For the project type, select Visual C. For the template, select Windows Application. Select a directory for the project files in the location box. Choose a name for the project.Click OK. Build application F6 the On the Build menu, click Build Solution. Ctrl+F5 Chapter 2 sueing with Variables, Operators, and Expressions After completing this chapter, you will be able to Understand statements, identifiers, and keywords. Use variables to store informati on. Work with early data types. Use arithmetic operators such as the plus sign (+) and the minus sign (). Increment and decrement variables. In Chapter 1, Welcome to C, you learned how to use the Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 programming environment to build and run a console program and a Windows Forms application.In this chapter, youll be introduced to the elements of Microsoft Visual C syntax and semantics, including statements, keywords, and identifiers. Youll study the primitive types that are make into the C language and the characteristics of the pass judgments that each type holds. Youll also see how to declare and use local variables (variables that exist only within a function or other small section of code), learn about the arithmetic operators that C provides, learn how to use operators to manipulate determine, and learn how to control demonstrations containing two or more operators. Understanding StatementsA statement is a command that performs an action. Statements are found inside methods. Youll learn more about methods in Chapter 3, Writing Methods and Applying Scope, but for now, think of a method as a named sequence of statements inside a class. Main, which was introduced in the previous chapter, is an example of a method. Statements in C must follow a well-defined set of rules. These rules are collectively known as syntax. (In contrast, the specification of what statements do is collectively known as semantics. ) One of the simplest and most important C syntax rules states 22 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP hat you must terminate all statements with a semicolon. For example, without its terminating semicolon, the following statement wont compile Console. WriteLine(Hello World) TIP C is a free format language, which means that white space, such as a space character or a new line, is not significant except as a separator. In other words, you are free to lay out your statements in any style you choose. A simple, consistent layout style makes a pr ogram easier to read and understand. The trick to programming well in any language is learning its syntax and semantics and then using the language in a natural and idiomatic way.This approach makes your programs readable and easy to modify. In the chapters throughout this book, youll see examples of the most important C statements. Using Identifiers Identifiers are the names you use to identify the elements in your programs. In C, you must adhere to the following syntax rules when choosing identifiers You can use only letters (uppercase and lowercase), digits, and underscore characters. An identifier must start with a letter (an underscore is considered a letter). For example, result, _score, footballTeam, and plan9 are all valid identifiers, whereas result%, footballTeam$, and 9plan are not.IMPORTANT C is a case-sensitive language footballTeam and FootballTeam are not the same identifier. Identifying Keywords The C language reserves 77 identifiers for its own use, and you shoul d not reuse these identifiers for your own purposes. These identifiers are called keywords, and each has a particular meaning. Examples of keywords are class, namespace, and using. Youll learn the meaning of most of the keywords as you go on through this book. The keywords are listed in the following table. abstract break char continue do event finally foreach in is as byte checked decimal double unmistakable fixed goto int ock base case class default else extern swim bladder if interface long 23 bool fetch const delegate enum sullen for implicit internal namespace SREEKANTH new out protect return sizeof struct true ulong using while C STEP BY STEP null override public sbyte stackalloc switch try unrestrained virtual object params readonly sealed static this typeof unsafe void operator private ref short string throw uint ushort volatile TIP In the Visual Studio 2005 Code and Text Editor window, keywords are colored blue when you type them. TIP In the Visual Studio 2005 Code a nd Text Editor window, keywords are colored blue when you type them.Using Variables A variable is a storage location that holds a value. You can think of a variable as a box holding temporary information. You must give each variable in a program a unique name. You use a variables name to refer to the value it holds. For example, if you want to store the value of the cost of an item in a store, you might create a variable simply called cost, and store the items cost in this variable. Later on, if you refer to the cost variable, the value retrieved will be the items cost that you put there earlier. Naming VariablesYou should adopt a naming convention for variables that help you avoid confusion concerning the variables you have defined. The following list contains some general recommendations Dont use underscores. Dont create identifiers that differ only by case. For example, do not create one variable named myVariable and another named MyVariable for use at the same time, because it is too easy to get them confused. NOTE Using identifiers that differ only by case can limit the ability to reuse classes in applications developed using other languages that are not case sensitive, such as Visual Basic. Start the name with a lowercase letter.In a multiword identifier, start the second and each subsequent word with an uppercase letter. (This is called camelCase notation. ) Dont use Magyar notation. (Microsoft Visual C++ developers reading this book are probably familiar with Hungarian notation. If you dont know what Hungarian notation is, dont worry about it ) 24 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP IMPORTANT You should treat the first two recommendations as supreme because they relate to Common Language Specification (CLS) compliance. If you want to write programs that can interoperate with other languages, such as Microsoft Visual Basic .NET, you need to abide by with these recommendations. For example, score, footballTeam, _score, and FootballTeam are all valid variabl e names, but only the first two are recommended. Declaring Variables Remember that variables are like boxes in retention that can hold a value. C has many different types of values that it can store and processwhole numbers, floating-point poesy, and strings of characters, to name three. When you declare a variable, you must specify what type of data it will hold. NOTE Microsoft Visual Basic programmers should note that C does not allow implicit declarations.You must pellucidly declare all variables before you can use them if you want your code to compile. You declare the type and name of a variable in a declaration statement. For example, the following statement declares that the variable named age holds int (integer) values. As always, the statement must be terminated with a semi-colon. int age The variable type int is the name of one of the primitive C typesinteger which is a whole number. (Youll learn about several primitive data types after in this chapter. ) After youve dec lared your variable, you can assign it a value. The following statement assigns age the value 42.Again, youll see that the semicolon is required. age = 42 The make up sign (=) is the assignment operator, which assigns the value on its right to the variable on its left. After this assignment, the age variable can be used in your code to refer to the value it holds. The next statement writes the value of the age variable, 42, to the console Console. WriteLine(age) TIP If you leave the mouse pointer over a variable in the Visual Studio 2005 Code and Text Editor window, a ToolTip appears telling you the type of the variable. Working with Primitive information Types C has a number of built-in types called primitive data types.The following table lists the most commonly used primitive data types in C, and the ranges of values that you can store in them. 25 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP Data type int Description Size (bits) * turn over Sample usage Whole poem 32 int count count = 42 long Who le numbers (bigger range) 64 float Floating-point numbers 32 231 through 2311 263 through 2631 3. 4 ? 1038 double Double accurate) numbers decimal Monetary values 128 string Sequence of characters 16 bits per not applicable character char Single character 16 bool Boolean 8 precision (more 64 floating-point 1. 7 ? 10308 28 significant igures long wait wait = 42L float away away = 0. 42F double disturbance trouble = 0. 42 decimal coin coin = 0. 42M string vest vest = 42 char grill grill = 4 0 through 216 1 bool teeth true or false teeth false = *The value of 216 is 32,768 the value of 231 is 2,147,483,648 and the value of 263 is 9,223,372,036,854,775,808. Unassigned Local Variables When you declare a variable, it contains a random value until you assign a value to it. This manner was a rich source of bugs in C and C++ programs that created a variable and used it as a source of information before giving it a value.C does not allow you to use an unassigned variable. You must assign a value to a variable before you can use it, otherwise your program will not compile. This requirement is called the distinct Assignment Rule. For example, the following statements will generate a compile-time error because age is unassigned int age Console. WriteLine(age) // compile time error Displaying Primitive Data Type Values In the following exercise, youll use a C program named PrimitiveDataTypes to demonstrate how several primitive data types work. Display primitive data type values 26SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP 1. Start Visual Studio 2005. 2. On the File menu, point to Open, and then click Project/Solution. The Open Project dialog box appears. 3. Move to the Microsoft PressVisual CSharp Step by StepChapter 2PrimitiveDataTypes folder in your My Documents folder. Select the file PrimitiveDataTypes. sln and then click Open. The solution loads, and the PrimitiveDataTypes project. Solution Explorer displays the solution and NOTE Solution file names have the . sln suffix, such as Pr imitiveDataTypes. sln. A solution can contain one or more projects.Project files have the . csproj suffix. If you open a project rather than a solution, Visual Studio 2005 will automatically create a new solution file for it. If you build the solution, Visual Studio 2005 automatically saves any updated or new files, and you will be prompted to provide a name and location for the new solution file. 4. On the Debug menu, click Start Without Debugging. The following application window appears 5. In the Choose A Data type list, click the string type. The value 42 appears in the Sample value box. 6. Click the int type in the list.The value to do appears in the Sample value box, indicating that the statements to display an int value still need to be written. 27 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP 7. Click each data type in the list. Confirm that the code for the double and bool types also needs to be completed. 8. Click Quit closing the window and stopping the program. Control returns to the Visual Studio 2005 programming environment. Use primitive data types in code 1. Right-click the Form1. cs file in the Solution Explorer and then click View Code. The Code and Text Editor window opens displaying the Form1. cs file. 2.In the Code and Text Editor window, find the show Float Value method listed here private void showFloatValue() float var var = 0. 42F value. Text = 0. 42F TIP To locate an item in your project, point to happen And Replace on the Edit menu and click Quick Find. A dialog box opens asking what you want to search for. Type the name of the item youre tone for, and then click Find Next. By default, the search is not case-sensitive. If you want to perform a case-sensitive search, click the + button next to the Find Options label to display additional options, and check the Match Case check box.If you have time, you can experiment with the other options as well. You can also press Ctrl+F (press the Control key, and then press F) to display the Quick Find dialog box rather then usin g the Edit menu. Similarly, you can press Ctrl+H to display the Quick Find and Replace dialog box. The showFloatValue method runs when you click the float type in the list box. This method contains three statements The first statement declares a variable named var of type float. The second statement assigns var the value 0. 42F. (The F is a type suffix specifying that 0. 2 should be treated as a float value. If you forget the F, the value 0. 42 will be treated as a double, and your program will not compile because you cannot assign a value of one type to a variable of a different type in this way. ) The third statement displays the value of this variable in the value TextBox on the form. This statement requires a little bit of your attention. The way in which you display an item in a TextBox is to set its Text property. You did this at 28 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP design time in Chapter 1 using the Properties window. This statement shows ou how to perform the same t ask programmatically, using the expression value. Text. The data that you put in the Text property must be a string (a sequence of characters), and not a number. If you try and assign a number to the Text property your program will not compile. For this reason, the statement simply displays the text 0. 42F in the TextBox (anything in double-quotes is text, otherwise known as a string). In a real-world application, you would add statements that convert the value of the variable var into a string and then put this into the Text property, but you need to know a little bit more about C and the .NET Framework before we can do that (we will cover data type conversions in Chapter 11, Understanding Parameter Arrays, and Chapter 19, Operator Overloading). 3. In the Code and Text Editor window, locate the showIntValue method listed here private void showIntValue() value. Text = to do The showIntValue method is called when you click the int type in the list box. TIP Another way to find a met hod in the Code and Text Editor window is to click the Members list that appears above the window, to the right. This window displays a list of all the methods (and other items).You can click the name of a member, and you will be taken directly to it in the Code and Text Editor window. 4. Type the following two statements at the start of the showIntValue method, after the open curly brace int var var = 42 The showIntValue method should now look like this private void showIntValue() int var var = 42 value. Text = to do 5. On the Build menu, click Build Solution. a. The build will display some warnings, but no errors. You can ignore the warnings for now. 6. In the original statement, change the string to do to 42. b. The method should now look exactly like this 9 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP c. private void showIntValue() d. i. int var ii. var = 42 iii. value. Text = 42 e. 7. On the Debug menu, click Start Without Debugging. f. The form appears again. g. TIP If you have edited the sou rce code since the last build, the Start Without Debugging command automatically rebuilds the program before starting the application. 8. Select the int type in the list box. Confirm that the value 42 is displayed in the Sample value text box. 9. Click Quit to close the window and stop the program. 10. In the Code and Text Editor window, find the showDoubleValue method. 1. Edit the showDoubleValue method exactly as follows private void showDoubleValue() double var var = 0. 42 value. Text = 0. 42 12. In the Code and Text Editor window, locate the showBoolValue method. 13. Edit the showBoolValue method exactly as follows private void showBoolValue() bool var var = false value. Text = false 14. On the Debug menu, click Start Without Debugging. The form appears. 15. In the list, select the int, double, and bool types. In each case, verify that the correct value is displayed in the Sample value text box. 16. Click Quit to stop the program.Using Arithmetic Operators C supports the reg ular arithmetic operations you learned in your childhood the plus sign (+) for addition, the minus sign () for subtraction, the asterisk (*) for multiplication, and the forward slash (/) for division. These symbols (+, , *, and /) are called operators as they operate on values to create new values. In the following 30 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP example, the variable moneyPaidToConsultant ends up holding the product of 750 (the daily rate) and 20 (the number of days the advisor was employed) long moneyPaidToConsultant oneyPaidToConsultant = 750 * 20 NOTE The values that an operator operates on are called operands. In the expression 750 * 20, the * is the operator, and 750 and 20 are the operands. Determining an Operators Values Not all operators are applicable to all data types, so whether you can use an operator on a value depends on the values type. For example, you can use all the arithmetic operators on values of type char, int, long, float, double, or decimal. However, with one ex ception, you cant use the arithmetic operators on values of type string or bool.So the following statement is not allowed because the string type does not support the minus operator (subtracting one string from another would be meaningless) // compile time error Console. WriteLine(Gillingham Manchester City) The exception is that the + operator can be used to concatenate string values. The following statement writes 431 (not 44) to the console Console. WriteLine(43 + 1) TIP You can use the method Int32. dissect to convert a string value to an integer if you need to perform arithmetic computations on values held as strings.You should also be sure that the type of the result of an arithmetic operation depends on the type of the operands used. For example, the value of the expression 5. 0 / 2. 0 is 2. 5 the type of both operands is double (in C, literal numbers with decimal points are always double, not float, in order to maintain as much accuracy as possible), and so the type of th e result is also double. However, the value of the expression 5 / 2 is 2. In this case, the type of both operands is int, and so the type of the result is also int. C always rounds values down in parcel like this.The situation gets a little more complicated if you assortment the types of the operands. For example, the expression 5 / 2. 0 consists of an int and a double. The C compiler detects the mismatch and generates code that converts the int into a double before performing the operation. The result of the operation is therefore a double (2. 5). However, although this works, it is considered poor practice to mix types in this way. C also supports one less-familiar arithmetic operator the rest, or modulus, operator, which is correspond by the percent symbol (%). The result of x % y is the remainder after dividing x by y.For example, 9 % 2 is 1 since 9 divided by 2 is 8, remainder 1. NOTE In C and C++, you cant use the % operator on floating-point values, but you can use it in C. Examining Arithmetic Operators 31 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP The following exercise demonstrates how to use the arithmetic operators on int values using a previously written C program named MathsOperators. Work with arithmetic operators 1. On the File menu, point to Open, and then click Project/Solution. Open the MathsOperators project, located in the Microsoft PressVisual CSharp Step by StepChapter 2MathsOperators folder in your My Documents folder. . On the Debug menu, click Start Without Debugging. A form appears on the screen. 3. Type 54 in the left operand text box. 4. Type 13 in the right operand text box. You can now apply any of the operators to the values in the text boxes. 5. Click the Subtraction option, and then click Calculate. The text in the Expression box changes to 54 13, and 41 appears in the Result box, as shown in the following graphic 6. Click the / segment option, and then click Calculate. The text in the Expression text box changes to 54 / 13, and the numb er 4 appears in the Result box. In real life, 54 / 13 is 4. 53846 recurring, but this is not real life this is C In C, when you divide one integer by another integer, the answer you get back is an integer, as explained earlier. 32 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP 7. Select the % Remainder option, and then click Calculate. The text in the Expression text box changes to 54 % 13, and the number 2 appears in the Result box. This is because the remainder after dividing 54 by 13 is 2 (54 ((54 / 13) * 13) is 2 if you do the arithmetic rounding down to an integer at each stagemy old maths master at school would be horrified to be told that (54 / 13) * 13 does not equal 54 . 8. Practice with other combinations of numbers and operators. When youre finished, click Quit. The program stops, and you return to the Visual Studio 2005 programming environment. Now take a look at the MathsOperators program code. Examine the MathsOperators program code 1. Display the Form1 form in the Design View window (clic k the Form1. csDesign tab if necessary). TIP You can quickly switch between the Design View window and the Code and Text Editor displaying the code for a form by urgent the F7 key. 2. In the View menu, point to Other Windows and then click Document dodging.The Document dodge window appears showing the names and types of the controls on the form. If you click each of the controls on the form, the name of the control is highlighted in the Document Outline window. 33 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP IMPORTANT Be careful not to accidentally delete or change the names of any controls on the form while viewing them in the Document Outline window. The application will no longer work if you do. 3. Click the the two TextBox controls that the user types numbers into on the form. In the Document Outline window, verify that they are named lhsOperand and rhsOperand.When the form runs, the Text property of each of these controls holds (as strings) the numeral values you enter. 4. Towards the bottom o f the form, verify that the TextBox control used to display the expression being evaluated is named expression, and that the TextBox control used to display the result of the calculation is named result. At runtime, setting the Text property of a TextBox control to a string value causes that value to be displayed. 5. Close the Document Outline window. 6. Press F7 to display the Form1. cs source file in the Code and Text Editor window. 7.In the Code and Text Editor window, locate the subtractValues method private void subtractValues() int lhs = int. Parse(lhsOperand. Text) int rhs = int. Parse(rhsOperand. Text) int outcome outcome = lhs rhs expression. Text = lhsOperand. Text + + rhsOperand. Text result. Text = outcome. ToString() The first statement in this method declares an int variable called lhs and initializes it to the result of the explicit conversion of the lhsOperand. Text property to an int. (The Text property of a TextBox is a string, and must be converted to an int eger before you can store it in an int. This is what the int.Parse method does) The second statement declares an int variable called rhs and initializes it to the result of the explicit conversion of the rhsOperand. Text property to an int. The third statement declares an int variable called outcome. The quarter statement subtracts the value of the rhs variable from the value of the lhs variable, and the result is assigned to outcome. The ordinal statement concatenates three strings (using the + operator) and assigns the result to the expression. Text property. The sixth statement converts the int value of outcome to a string by using the ToString method, and assigns the string to the result.Text property. 34 SREEKANTH C STEP BY STEP The Text office and the ToString Method I mentioned earlier that TextBox controls displayed on a form have a Text property that allows you to access the displayed contents. For example, the expression result. Text refers to the contents of the result text box on the form. Text boxes also have many other properties, such as the location and size of the text box on the form. You will learn more about properties in Chapter 14, Implementing Properties to Access Attributes. Every class has a ToString method.The purpose of ToString is to convert an object into its string representation. In the previous example, the ToString method of the integer object, outcome, is used to convert the integer value of outcome into the equivalent string value. This conversion is necessary because the value is displayed in the Text property of the result fieldthe Text property can only contain strings. When you Controlling antecedency Precedence governs the order in which an expressions operators are evaluated. Consider the following expression, which uses the + and * operators 2+3*4This expression is potentially ambiguous does 3 bind to the + operator on its le